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Library. No. M<^ 

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 18T4, 

bt d. van NOSTRAXD, 

In the Office of the Librarian 'of Congress, at Washington. 



Preface, . . . • 7 

The Use of the Blowpipe, • . . 9 

Utensils — The Blowpipe, . . . . 12 

The Oil Lamp, 22 

The Spirit Lamp, • ... 23 

Charcoal Support . . . • 24 

Platinum Supports, 2G 

Iron Spoons, . . . , •• ♦ • . . .28 

Glass Tubes, 28 

Other Apparatus necessary, . . . . • . . .31 

Thk ReagexNts, , . .34 

Reagents of General Use, 34 

■ Carbonate of Soda, . 84 

Hydrate of Baryta, 35 

Bi-sulphate of Potassa, .•.••••• 35 
Oxalate of Potassa, .... , , . « 86 

Cyanide of Potassium, ..•».... S6 

IV (J N T 

1-: NTS. 


The Reagents — (continued.) 

Nitrate of Potassa, ...•,•,,. 37 


. 38 

MicrocosDiic Salt, 

. 39 

Nitrate of Cobalt, . . , 

. 40 


. 41 

Silica, .... 

. 42 

Test Papers, 

. 42 

Especial Reagents, . . , 

. 43 

Boracic Acid, .... 

. 43 

Fluorspar, . . , 

. 43 

Oxalate of Xickel, . 

. 43 

Oxide of Copper, 

. 43 

Antimoniate of Potassa, . 

. 44 

Silver Foil, 

. . 44 

Kitroprusside of Sodium, . , 

. 44 


Initiatory Analysis, 47 

Examination with the Glass Bulb, 47 

" in the Open Tube, 52 

" upon Charcoal, 55 

" in the Platinum Forceps, 61 

" in the Borax Bead, 69 

" in Microcosmic Salt, 72 

Table I. — Colors of Beads of Borax and Microcosmic Salt, . .75 
Table II. — Behavior of Metallic Oxydes with Borax and Microcosmic 

Salt, . . 85 

Examinations with Carbonate of Soda, 103 




The DETERMrNATiOiSr of Minebals by the Aid of the 
Blowpipe 105 

Table of Reactions : 

I. The substance reduced to a powder is placed upon Cliar- 

coal and heated with the blowpipe flame . . .109 

1. It volatilizes or burns 109 

2. It yields an alliaceous odor 113 

3. It yields the odor of decayed horse-radish . .115 

4. It gives off fumes of antimony 115 

5. It forms upon the charcoal a whitish coating, which 

tinges the reduction flame green . . . .118 

6. The residue has an alkaline reaction . . .119 

7. The residue is magnetic 123 

II. The substance mixed with the Carbonate of Soda is placed 

upon Charcoal and heated in the reduction flame . 125 

1. The fused mass gives the sulphur reaction upon sil- 

ver. There is also a metallic globule . . . 125 

2. The fused mass gives the sulphur reaction, but no 

metallic globule 128 

3. The fused mass does not afford the sulphur reaction, 

but yields a metallic bead 130 

III. The Borax Bead is violet in the exterior flame . . 134 

1. Minerals with metallic lustre 134 

2. Minerals without metallic lustre .... 135 

IV. The pulverized substance, heated with Cobalt solution, 

exhibits a green color 137 

V. The substance dissolves completely in Hydrochloric Acid 137 

1. It is fusible before the blowpipe .... 137 

2. It is infusible before the blowpipe .... 139 

vi Contents. 


Table of Reactions— (Continued.) 

VI. The substance is partially dissolved in llydrocLloric 

Acid, forming a gelatinous mass .... 141 

1. Fusible before the blowpipe 141 

2. Infusible before the blowpipe 144 

VII. The substance dissolves in Hydrochloric Acid, leaving 

a residue of Silica, but not in a gelatinous form , 145 

1. Anhydrous bodies 145 

2. Hydrates . .147 

VIII. The substance is insoluble in Hydrochloric Acid, and 
yields in the microcosmic salt bead a skeleton of Silica 149 

1. It is fusible before the blowpipe 

2. It is infusible 


IX. Minerals belonging to neither of the preceding groups 152 


Appendix a. The flame of Lithia distinguished from Strontia 
" h. Reaction of Manganese salts on Baryta . 
" c. Detection of Baryta in presence of Strontia . 
'* d. Action of Baryta on Titanic Acid . 
*' e. Detection of minute quantities of Manganese 
" /. Method of distinguishing the Protoxide of Iron 

from the Sesquioxide .... 
" g. Detection of minute traces of Copper . 
" 7i. Detection of Lead in presence of Bismuth 
" ^. Detection of Antimony in tube sublimates 
" j. Chlorate of Potassa as a reagent , 
** k. Iridium and its Oxide .... 



The following pages have been compiled from such 
avai-lable material as seemed best adapted to the needs of 
the beginner in the use of the blowpipe. 

Parts I and II have been adapted with but few emenda- 
tions from the work of Sheerer and Blanford. The altera- 
tions have chiefly been in the chemical symbols, the new 
nomenclature replacing the old. 

Part III is translated from " Guide Pratique pour la 
Determination des Mineraux," par Aug. Gnerout ; the orig- 
inal was written by Dr. Fuchs of Heidelberg. In place of 
the complex chemical formulas of the French and German 
works, I have, in consequence of the elementary character 
of the book, preferred to give the chemical names. 

As a'convenient guide to the learner, this compilation is 
offered to scientific students. 

Geo, W. Pltmptoi^. 

PoLYTEcnNic Institute 

Brooklyn, July, 1874 



Part First, 


Perhaps during the last fifty years, no department of chem« 
istry has been so enriched as that relating to analysis by means 
of the Blowpipe. 

Through the unwearied exertions of men of science, the use 
of this instrument has arrived to such a degree of perfection, 
that we have a right to term its use, " Analysis in the dry 
way," in contradistinction to analysis " in the wet way." The 
manipulations are so simple and expeditious, and the results so 
clear and characteristic, that the Blowpipe analysis not only 
verifies and completes the results of analysis in the wet way, 
but it gives in many cases direct evidences of the presence or 
absence of many substances, which would not be otherwise 
detected, but through a troublesome and tedious process) 
involving both prolixity and time ; for instance, the detection 
of manganese in minerals. 

Many substances have to go through Blowpipe manipulations 
before they can be submitted to an analysis in the wet way. 


10 T II E Blowpipe. 

The apparatus and reagents employed are compendious and 
small in number, so that they can be carried easily while on 
scientific excursions, a considerable advantage for mineralogists 
and metallurgists. 

The principal operations with the Blowpipe may be ex- 
plained briefly as follows : 

(a.) By Ignition is meant the exposure of a substance to 
such a degree of heat, that it glows or emits light, or becomes 
red-hot. Its greatest value is in the separation of a volatile 
substance from one less volatile, or one which is entirely fixed 
at the temperature of the flame. In this case we only take 
cognizance of the latter or fixed substance, although in many 
instances we make use of ignition for the purpose of changing 
the conditions of a substance, for example, the sesqui-oxide 
of chromium (Cr^O^) in its insoluble modification ; and as a 
preliminary examination for the purpose of ascertaining whether 
the subject of inquiry be a combination of an organic or inor- 
ganic nature. 

The apparatus used for this purpose are crucibles of pla- 
tinum or silver, platinum foil, a platinum spoon, platinum wire 
or tongs, charcoal, glass tubes, and iron spoons. 

(J).) Sublimation is that process by which we convert a solid 
substance into vapor by means of a strong heat. These vapors 
are condensed by refrigeration into the solid form. It may be 
termed a distillation of a solid substance. Sublimation is of 
great consequence in the detection of many substances ; for 
nstance, arsenic, antimony, mercury, etc. 

The apparatus used for the purposes of sublimation consist 
of glass tubes closed at one end. 

(c.) Fusion. — Many substances when exposed to a certain 
Cegree of heat lose their solid form, and are converted into 
a liquid. Those substances which do not become converted 
into the liquid state by heat, are said to be infusible. It is a 
convenient classification to arrange substances into those which 
are fusible vrith difficulty, and those which are easily fusible. 
Very often we resort to fusion for the purpose of decomposing a 

I T S U S E . 11 

substance, or to cause it to enter into other combinations, by 
which means it is the more readily detected. If insoluble sub- 
stances are fused with others more fusible (reagents) for the 
purpose of causing a combination which is soluble in water and 
acids, the operation is termed unclosing. These substances are 
particularly the silicates and the sulphates of the alkaline 
earths. The usual reagents resorted to for this purpose are 
carbonate of soda (NaaCOg), carbonate of potash (KoCOg), 
or still better, a mixture of the two in equal parts. In some 
cases we use the hydrate of barytes [Ba(II0)2] and the bisul- 
phate of potash (KHSO4). The platinum spoon is generally 
used for this manipulation. 

Substances are exposed to fusion for the purpose of getting 
a new combination Avhich has such distinctive characteristics 
that we can class it under a certain group ; or for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining at once what the substance may be. The 
re-agents used for this purpose are borax [NaH(B02)2] and 
the microcosmic salt (Na, NIL, IIPO4). Charcoal and the 
platinum wire are used as supports for this kind of opera- 

{d.) Oxidation. — The chemical combination of any substance 
with oxygen is termed oxidation, and the products are termed 
oxides. As these oxides have qualities differing from those 
which are non-oxidized, it therefore frequently becomes neces- 
sary to convert substances into oxides ; or, if they are such, 
of a lower degree, to convert them into a higher degree of 
oxidation. These different states of oxidation frequently pre- 
sent characteristic marks of identity sufficient to enable us to 
draw conclusions in relation to the substance under examina- 
tion. For instance, the oxidation of manganese, of arsenic, etc. 
The conditions necessary for oxidation, are high temperature 
and the free admission of air to the substance. 

If the oxidation is effected through the addition of a sub- 
stance containing oxygen (for instance, the nitrate or chlorate 
of potash) and the heating is accompanied by a lively defla- 
gration and crackling noise, it is termed detonation: By this 

12 T 11 E B L o w r I p E . 

process we frequeutly effect the oxidation of a substance, and 
thus we prove the presence or the absence of a certain class 
of substances. For mstance, if we detonate (as it is termed 
by the German chemists) the sulphide of antimony, or the 
sulphide of arsenic with nitrate of potash, we get the nitrate 
of antimony, or the nitrate of arsenic. The salts of nitric or 
chloric acid are determined by fusing them with the cyanide 
of potassium, because the salts of these acids detonate. 

(e.) Reduction. — If we deprive an oxidized substance of its 
oxygen, we term the process reduction. This is effected by 
fusing the substance under examination with another which 
possesses a greater affinity for oxygen. The agents used 
for reduction are hydrogen, charcoal, soda, cyanide of potas- 
sium, etc. Substances generally, when in the unoxidized state, 
have such characteristic quaUties, that they cannot very readily 
be mistaken for others. For this reason, reduction. is a very 
excellent expedient for the purpose of discerning and classifying 
many substances. 


We shall give here a brief description of the most necessary 
apparatus used for analysis in the dry way, and of their use. 

The Blowpipe is a small instrument, made generally out of 
brass, silver, or German silver, and was principally used in ear- 
lier times for the purpose of soldering small pieces of metals 
together. It is generally made in the form of a tube, bent at 
a right angle, but without a sharp corner. The largest one is 
about seven inches long, and the smallest about two inches. 
The latter one terminates with a small point, with a small 
orifice. The first use of the blowpipe that we have recorded 
is that of a Swedish mining officer, who used it in the year 1738 
for chemical purposes, but we have the most meagre accounts 
of his operations. In IT 58 another Swedish mining officer, by 
the name of Cronstedt, published his " Use of the Blowpipe in 

Its Use 


Chemistry and Mineralogy," translated into English, in IT TO, 
by Van Engestroem. Bergman extended its use, and after 
him Ghan and the venerable Berzelius 
Q821). The blowpipe most generally 
used in chemical examinations is com- 
posed of the folio wing parts : {Fig. 1.) 
A is a little reservoir made air-tight by 
grinding the part B into it. This re- 
servoir serves the purpose of retaining 
the moisture with which the air from 
the mouth is charged. A small coni- 
cal tube is fitted to this reservoir. 
This tube terminates in a fine ori- 
fice. As this small point is liable to 
get clogged up with soot, etc., it is bet- 
ter that it should be made of platinum, 
so that it may be ignited. Two of 
these platinum tubes should be suppUed, 
differing in the size of the orifice, by 
•which a stronger or lighter current 
of flame may be projected from it. 
Metals, such as brass or German sil- 
ver, are very liable to become dirty 
through oxidation, and when placed 
between the lips are liable to im- 
part a disagreeable taste. To avoid 
this, the top of the tube must be sup- 
plied with a mouthpiece of ivory 
or horn C. The blowpipe here repre- 
sented is the one used by Ghan, and 
approved by Berzelius. The trumpet mouthpiece was adopted 
by Plattner ; it is pressed upon the lips while blowing, which 
is less tiresome than holding the mouthpiece between the lips, 
although many prefer the latter mode. 

Dr. Black's blowpipe is as good an instrument and cheaper. 


T 11 i: ]j L () w 1' I p K 

It consists of tv.'o tubes, soldered at a, riglit angle ; the larger 
one, into which tJie air is blown, is of sufficient capacity to 
serve as a reservoir. 

A chemist can, with a blowpipe and a piece o? charcoal, 
determine many substances without any reagents, thus enabling 
him, even when travelling, to make useful investigations with 
means which are always at his disposal. There are pocket 
blowpipes as portable as a pencil case, such as Wollaston's 
and Mitscherlich's ; these are objectionable for continued 
use as tjieir construction requires the use of a metallic 
mouthpiece. Mr. Casamajor, of New York, has made one 
lately which has an ivory mouthpiece, and which, when in use, 
is like Dr. Black's. 

The length of the blowpipe is generally seven or eight 
inches, but this depends very much upon the visual angle of 

the operators. A short-sighted person, of cours?, v/ould 

I T S U S E . 15 

require an instrument of less length than would suit a far- 
sighted person. 

The purpose required of the blowpipe is to introduce a fine 
current of air into the flame of a candle or lamp, bj which a 
higher degree of heat is induced, and consequently combustion 
is more rapidly accomplished. 

By inspecting the flame of a candle burning under usual 
circumstances, we perceive at the bottom of the flame a por- 
tion which is of a light blue color {a h), Fig. 2, which gra- 
dually diminishes in size as it recedes from the wick, and disap- 
pears when it reaches the perpendicular side of the flame. In 
the midst of the flame there is a dark nucleus with a conical 
form (c). This is enveloped by the illuminating portion of the 
flame {d). At the exterior edge of the part d we perceive a 
thin, scarcely visible veil, a, e, c, which is broader near the 
apex of the flame. The action of the burning candle may be 
thus explained. The radiant heat from the flame melts the 
tallow or wax, which then passes up into the texture of the 
wick by capillary attraction until it reaches the glowing wick, 
vv^liere the heat decomposes the combustible matter into cnr- 
buretted hydrogen (C^II^), and into carbonic oxide (CO). 

While these gases are rising in hot condition, the air comes 
in contact with them and effects their combustion. The dark 
portion, c, of the flame is where the carbon and gases have not 
a suSiciency of air for their thorough combustion ; but gra- 
dually they become mixed with air, although not then sufficient 
for complete combustion. The hydrogen is first oxidized or 
burnt, and then the carbon is attacked by the air, although par- 
ticles of carbon are separated, and it is these, in a state of 
intense ignition, which produce the illumination. By bringing 
any oxidizable substance into this portion of the flame, it oxi- 
dizes very quickly in consequence of the high temperature and 
the free access of air. For that reason this part of the 
flame is termed the oxidizing flame, while the illuminating por- 
tion, by its tendency to abstract oxygen for the purpose of 
complete combustion, easily reduces oxidized substances 

16 T II E B L O W P I P K . 

brought into it, and it is, therefore, called the ilame of reduc- 
tion. In the oxidizing flame, on the contrary, all the carbon 
which exists in the interior of the flame is oxidized into 
carbonic acid (CO^) and carbonic oxide (CO), while the 
blue color of the cone of the flame is caused by the complete 
combustion of the carbonic oxide. These two portions of the 
flame — the oxidizing and the reducing — are the principal 
agents of blowpipe analysis. 

If we introduce a fine current of air into a flame, we notice 
the following : The air strikes first the dark nucleus, and forc- 
ing the gases beyond it, mixes with them, by which oxygen is 
mingled freely with them. This effects the complete combus- 
tion of the gases at a certain distance from the point of the 
blowpipe. At this j^lace the flame has the highest tempera- 
ture, forming there the point of a blue cone. The illuminated 
or reducing portion of the flame is enveloped outside and 
inside by a very hot flame, whereby its own temperature is so 
much increased that in this reduction-flame many substances 
will undergo fusion which would prove perfectly refractory in 
a common flame. The exterior scarcely visible part loses its 
form, is diminished, and pressed more to a point, by which its 
heating power is greatly increased. 

The Blast of Air. — By using the blowpipe for chemical pur- 
poses, the effect intended to be produced is an uninterrupted 
steady stream of air for many minutes together, if necessary, 
without an instant's cessation. Therefore, the blowing can 
only be effected with the muscles of the cheeks, and not by the 
exertion of the lungs. It is only by this means that a steady 
constant stream of air can be kept up, while the lungs will not 
be injured by the deprival of air. The details of the pro- 
per manner of using the blowpipe are really more difficult to 
describe than to acquire by practice ; therefore the pupil is 
requested to apply himself at once to its practice, by which he 
will soon learn to produce a steady current of air, and to dis- 
tinguish the different flames from each other. We would 
simply say that the tongue must be applied to the roof of the 

I T S U S E . 17 

mouth, so as to interrupt the commuuicatioa between the 
passage of the nostrils and the mouth. The operator now fills 
his mouth with air, which is to be passed through the pipe by 
compressing the muscles of the cheeks, while he breathes 
through the nostrils, and uses the palate as a valve. When 
the mouth becomes nearly empty, it is replenished by the 
lungs in an instant, while the tongue is momentarily withdrawn 
from the roof of the mouth. The stream of air can be continued 
for a long time, without the least fatigue or injury to the lungs. 
The easiest way for the student to accustom himself to the 
use of the blowpipe, is first to learn to fill the mouth with air, 
and while the lips are kept firmly closed to breathe freely through 
the nostrils. Having effected this much, he may introduce the 
mouthpiece of the blowpipe between his lips. By inflating the 
cheeks, and breathing through the nostrils, he will soon learn 
to use the instrument without the least fatigue. The air is 
forced through the tube against the flame by the action of the 
muscles of the cheeks, while he continues to breathe without 
interruption through the nostrils. Having become acquainted 
with this process, it only requires some practice to produce a 
steady jet of flame. A defect in the nature of the combustible 
used, as bad oil, such as fish oil, or oil thickened by long stand- 
ing or by dirt, dirty cotton wick, or an untrimmed one, or a 
dirty wickholder, or a want of steadiness of the hand that 
holds the blowpipe, will prevent a steady jet of flame. But 
frequently the fault lies in the orifice of the jet, or too small 
a hole, or its partial stoppage by dirt, which will prevent a 
steady jet of air, and lead to difficulty. With a good blowpipe 
the air projects the entire flame, forming a horizontal, blue 
cone of flame, which converges to a point at about an inch from 
the wick, with a larger, longer, and more luminous flame 
enveloping it, and terminating to a point beyond that of the 
blue flame. 

To produce an efficient flame of oxidation, put the point 
of the blowpipe into the flame about one third the diameter 
of the wick, and about one twelfth of an inch above it. This, 


The U l o w p I p e . 

however, depends upon the size of the flame used. Blow strong 
cnougli to keep the flame straight and horizontal, using the 
largest orifice for the purpose. Upon examining the flame 
thus produced, we will observe a long, blue flame, a h, Fig. 3, 
which letters correspond with the same letters in Fig. 2, But 
this flame has changed its form, and contains all the combus- 
tible gases. It forms now a thin, blue cone, which converges 
to a point about an inch from the wick. This point of the 

flame possesses the highest intensity of temperature, for there 
the combustion of the gases is the most complete. In the 
original flame, the hottest part forms the external envelope, 
but here it is compressed more into a point, fonning the cone 
of the blue flame, and likewise au envelope of flame surround- 
ing the blue one, extending beyond it from a to c, and present- 
ing a light bluish or brownish color. The external flame has 
the highest temperature at d, but this decreases from d to c. 

If there is a very high temperature, the oxidation is not 
effected so readily in many cases, unless the substance is removed 
a little from the flame ; but if the heat be not too high, it is 
readilv oxidized in the flame, or near its cone. If the current 

I T S U S E . IS 

of air is blown too freely or violently into the flame, more air is 
forced there than is sufficient to consume the gases. This 
superfluous air only acts detrimentally, by cooling the flame. 

In general the operation proceeds best when the substance is 
kept at a dull red heat. The blue cone must be kept free from 
straggling rays of the yellow or reduction flame. If the analy- 
sis be effected on charcoal, the blast should not be too strong, 
as a part of the coal would be converted into carbonic oxide, 
which would act antagonistically to the oxidation. The oxida- 
tion flame requires a steady current of air, for the purpose of 
keeping the blue cone constantly of the same length. For the 
purpose of acquiring practice, the following may be done : 
Melt a little molybdic acid with some borax, upon a platinum 
wire, about the sixteenth of an inch from the point of the blue 
cone. In the pure oxidation flame, a clear yellowish glass is 
•formed ; but as soon as the reduction flame reaches it, or the 
point of the blue cone touches it, the color of the bead changes 
to a brown, which, finally, after a little longer blowing, becomes 
quite dark, and loses its transparency. The cause of this is, 
that the molybdic acid is very easily reduced to a lower 
degree of oxidation, or to the oxide of molybdenum. The 
flame of oxidation will again convert this oxide into the acid, 
and this conversion is a good test of the progress of the student 
in the use of the blowpipe. In cases where we have to sepa- 
rate a more oxidizable substance from a less one, we use with 
success the blue cone, particularly if we wish to determine whe- 
ther a substance has the quality, when submitted to heat in the 
blue cone, of coloring the external flame. 

A good reduction flame can be obtained by the use of a small 
orifice at the point of the blowpipe. In order to produce such 
a flame, hold the point of the blowpipe higher above the wick, 
while the nozzle must not enter the flame so far as in the pro- 
duction of the oxidation flame. The point of the blowpipe 
should only touch the flame, while the current of air blown into 
it must be stronger than into the oxidation flame. If we pro- 
ject a stream, in the manner mentioned, into the flame, from 

20 T H E 13 L o w p I r i: . 

the smaller side of the wick to the middle, we shall })erceive the 
iame changed to a long, narrow, luminous cone, a b, Fig. 4, 

the end a of which is enveloped by the same dimly visible blue- 
ish colored portion of the flame a, c, which we perceive in the 
original flame, with its point at c. The portion close above the 
wick, presenting the dull appearance, is occasioned by the rising 
gases which have not supplied to them enough oxygen to con- 
sume them entirely. The hydrogen is consumed, while the 
carbon is separated in a state of bright ignition, and forms the 
internal flame. 

Directly above the wick, the combustion of the gases is least 
complete, and forms there likewise, as is the case in the free 
flame, a dark blue nucleus d. 

If the oxide of a metal is brought into the luminous portion 
of the flame produced as above, so that the flame envelopes the 
substance perfectly, the access of air is prevented. The par- 
tially consumed gases have now a strong affinity for oxygen, 
under the influence of the intense heat of that part of the flame. 
The substance is thus deprived of a part, or the whole, of its 
oxygen, and becomes reduced according to the strength of the affin- 

I T S U S E . 21 

it J which the wsubstance itself has for oxygeD. If the reductiou 
of a substance is undertaken on platinum, by fusion with a flux, 
and if the oxide is difficult to reduce, the reduction will be 
completely effected only in the luminous part of the flame. 
But if a substance be reduced on charcoal, the reduction will 
take place in the blue part of the flame, as long as the access of 
au* is cut off ; but it is the luminous part of the flame which 
really possesses the greatest reducing power. 

The following should be observed in order to procure a good 
reduction flame : 

The wick should not be too long, that it may make a smoke, 
nor too short, otherwise the flame will be too small to produce 
a heat strong enough for reduction. 

The wick must be free from all loose threads, and from char- 

The blast should be continued for a considerable time with- 
out intermission, otherwise reduction cannot be effected. 

For the purpose of acquiring practice, the student may fuse 
the oxide of manganese with borax, upon a platinum wire, in 
the oxidation flame, when a violet-red glass will be obtained ; 
or if too much of the oxide be used, a glass of a dark color and 
opaque will be obtained. By submitting this glass to the 
reduction flame, it will become colorless in correspondence to 
the perfection with which the flame is produced. Or a piece 
of tin may be fused upon charcoal, and kept in that state for a 
considerable time, while it presents the appearance of a bright 
metal on the surface. This will require dexterity in the opera- 
tor ; for, if the oxidation flame should chance to touch the 
bright metal only for a moment, it is coated with an infusible 

Combustion. — Any flame of sufficient size can be used for 
blowpipe operations. It may be either the flame of a candle 
of tallow or wax, or the flame of a lamp. The flame of a wax 
candle, or of an oil lamp is most generally used. Sometimes a 
lamp is used filled with a solution of spirits of turpentine in 
strong alcohol. If a candle is used, it is well to cut the wick 


T ir ]•: I^> L u ^.v 

!• I V E 

off short, and to bend the wick a little toward the substance 
experimented upon. But candles are not the best for blowpipe 
operations, as the radiant heat, reflecting from the substance 
upon the wax or tallow, will cause it to melt and run down the 
side of the candle ; while again, candles do not give heat 
enough. The lamp is much the most desirable. The subjoined 
figure, from Berzelius, is perhaps the best form of lamp. It is 

Fig. 5. 

made of japanned tin-plate, about four inches in leng'th, and ha? 

Its Use. 


the form and arrangement represented in Fig. 5. K is tlie lamp, 
fastened on the stand, S, by a screw, C, and is movable upwards 
or downwards, as represented in the figure. The posterior end of 
the lamp may be about one inch square, and at its anterior end, E, 
about three-quarters of an inch square. The under side of this box 
may be round, as seen in the figure. The oil is poured into the 
orifice, A, which has a cap screwed over it. C is a wick- 
holder for a flat lamp-wick. « is a socket containing the wick, 
which, when not in use, is secured from dirt by the cap. The 
figures B and o! give the forms of the cap and socket. The 
best combustible for this lamp is the refined rape-seed oil, or 
pure sweet oil. When this lamp is in use, there must be no 
loose threads, or no charcoal on the wick, or these will produce 
a smoky flame. The wick, likewise, should not be pulled up 
too high, as the same smoky flame would be produced. 

The Spirit-Lamp. — This is a short, strong glass lamp, with 
a cap, B, Fig. 6, fitted to it by grinding, to prevent the cva- 

Fi?. G. 

poration cf the alcohol, 
of silver, or of tin plate, 

The neck a contains a tube C, made 
ind which contains the wick. Brass 

24 The Blowpipe. 

would not answer so well for this tube, as the spirits would 
oxidize it, and thus impart color to the flame. The wickholder 
must cover the edge of the neck, but not fit tight within the 
tube, otherwise, by its expansion, it will break the glass. It 
is not necessary that alcohol, very highly rectified, should be 
burnt in this lamp, although if too much diluted with water, 
enough heat will not be given out. Alcohol of specific gravity 
0.84 to 0.86 is the best. 

This lamp is generally resorted to by blowpipe analysts, for 
the purpose of experiments in glass apparatus, as the oily com- 
bustibles will coat the glass with soot. Some substances, when 
exposed to the dark part of the flame, become reduced and, in 
statu nascendi, evaporated ; but by passing through the exter- 
nal part of the flame, they become oxidized again, and impart 
a color to the flame. The spirit flame is the most efficient one 
for the examination of substances the nature of which we wish 
to ascertain through color imparted to the flame, as that of 
the spirit-lamp being colorlc:s, is, consequently, most easily 
and thoroughly recognized by the slightest tinge imparted to it. 

It is necessary that in operating with such minute quanti- 
ties of substances as are used in blowpipe analysis, that they 
should have some appropriate support. In order that no false 
results may ensue, it is necessary that the supports should be of 
such a nature that they will not form a chemical combination 
with the substance while it is exposed to fusion or ignition. 
Appropriate supports for the different blowpipe experiments are 
charcoal, platinum instruments, and glass tubes. 

(a.) Charcoal. — The value of charcoal as a support may be 
stated as follows : 

1. The charcoal is infusible, and being a poor conductor of 
heat, a substance can be exposed to a higher degree of heat 
upon it than upon any other substance. 

2. It is very porous, and therefore allows easily fusible sub- 
stances (such as alkalies and fluxes) to pass into it, while other 
substances less fusible, such as metals, to remain unabsorbed. 

3. It has likewise a great reducing power. 

I T S U 8 E. 25 

The best kiad of charcoal is that of pinewood, linden, Tvillow, 
or alderwood, or any other soft wood. Coal from the firwood 
sparkles too freely, while that of the hard woods contains too 
much iron in its ashes. Smooth pieces, free from bark and 
knots, should be selected. It should be thoroughly burnt, and 
the annual rings or growths should be as close together as 

If the charcoal is in masses, it should be sawed into pieces 
about six inches in length by about two inches broad, but so 
tliat the year-growths run perpendicular to the broadest side, 
as the other sides, by their unequal structure, burn unevenly. 

That the substance under examination may not be carried 
off by the blast, small conical concavities should be cut in the 
broad side of the charcoal, between the year-growths, with a 
conical tube of tin plate about two or three inches long, and 
one quarter of an inch at one end, and half an inch at the 
other. These edges are made sharp with a file. The widest 
end of this charcoal borer is used for the purpose of making 
cavities for cupeiiation. 

In places where the proper kind of charcoal is difficult to 
procure, it is economical to cut common charcoal into pieces 
about an inch broad, and the third of an inch thick. In each 
of these little pieces small cavities should be cut with the small 
end of the borer. When these pieces of charcoal are required 
for use, they must be fastened to a narrow slip of tin plate, 
one end of which is bent into the form of a hook, under which 
the plate of charcoal is pushed. 

In general, we use the charcoal support where we wish to 
reduce metallic oxides, to prevent oxidation, or to test the 
fusibility of a substance. There is another point to which we 
^^ould direct the student. Those metals which are volatile in 
ih?- reduction flame, appear as oxides in the oxidation flame, 
'rhese oxides make sublimates upon the charcoal close in the 
vicinity of the substance, or where it rested, and by their pecu- 
liar color indicate pretty correctly the species of minerals ex- 
perimented upon. 

26 T II E B L o w p I p 


{b.) Platinum Supj^oris. — The metal platinum is infusible in 
the blowpipe flame, and is such a poor conductor of heat that 
a strip of it may be held close to that portion of it which is 
red hot without the least inconvenience to the fingers. It is 
necessary that the student should be cognizant of those sub- 
stances which would not be appropriate to experiment upon 
if placed on platinum. Metals should not be treated upon 
platinum apparatus, nor should the easily reducible oxides, 
sulphides, nor chlorides, as these substances will combine with 
the jDlatinum, and thus render it unfit for further use in analysis. 

(c.) Platinum Wire. — As the color of the flame cannot be 
well discerned when the substance is supported upon charcoal, 
in consequence of the latter furnishing false colors, by its own 
reflection, to the substances under examination^ we use plati- 
num wire for that purpose, when we wish to examine those 
substances which give indications by the peculiar color which 
they impart to fluxes. The wire should be about as thick 
as No. 16 or 18 wire, or about 0.4 millimetre, and 
cut into pieces about from two and a half to three inches 
in length. The end of each piece is crooked. In order 
that these pieces should remain clear of dirt, and ready 
for use, they should be kept in a glass of water. To use 
them, we dip the wetted hooked end into the powdered flux 
(borax or microcosmic salt) some of which will adhere, when 
we fuse it in the flame of the blowpipe to a bead. This bead 
hanging in the hook, must be clear and colorless. Should 
there not adhere a sufficient quantity of the flux in the first 
trial to form a bead sufiiciently large, the hook must be dipped 
a second time in the flux and again submitted to the blowpipe 
flame. To fix the substance to be examined to the bead, it is 
necessary, while the latter is hot, to dip it in the powdered 
substance. If the hook is cold, we moisten the powder a little, 
and then dip the hook into it, and then expose it to the oxida- 
tion flame, by keeping it exposed to a regular blast until the 
substance and the flux are fused together, and no further alter- 
ation is produced by the flame. 

I T S U S E . 27 

The platinum wire can be used except v.bero redaction to 
the metallic state is required. Every reduction and oxidation 
experiment, if the results are to be known by the color of the 
fluxes, should be effected upon platinum wire. At the termina- 
tion of the experiment or investigation, if it be one, to clean 
the wire, place it in water, which will dissolve the bead. 

{d.) Platinum Foil. — For the heating or fusing of a substance, 
whereby its reduction would be avoided, we use platinum foil 
as a support. This foil should be of the thickness of good 
writing paper, and from two and a half to three inches long, 
by about half an inch broad, and as even and smooth as possi- 
ble. If it should become injured by long use, cut the injured 
end off, and if it should prove too short to be held with the 
fingers, a j^air of forceps may be used to grasp it, or it may be 
placed on a piece of charcoal 

(e.) JPla^num Spoon. — When we require to fuse substances 
with the acid sulphate of potash, or to oxidize them by 
detonation with nitrate of potash, whereby we wish to preserve 
the oxide produced, we generally use a little spoon of plati- 
num, about from nine to fifteen millimetres * in diameter, and 
shaped as represented in Fig. 1. The handle of this spoon is 

Fig. T. 

likewise of platinum, and should fit into a piece of cork, or be 
held with the forceps. 

(/.) PlatinuTii Forceps or Tongs. — We frequently are neces- 
sitated to examine small splinters of metals or minerals 
directly in the blowpipe flame. These pieces of metallic sub- 
stances are held with the forceps or tongs represented as in 

* The French miUimetre is about the twenty-fifth part of an English inch. 

28 T H E B L O V/ P I P E . 

Fig. 8, where a c is formed of steel, and a a are platinum 

Fig. 8. 

bars inserted between the steel plates. AX h h are knobs 
which bj pressure so separate the platinum bars a a, that any 
small substance can be inserted between them. 

{g.) Iron Spoons. — For a preliminary examination iron spoons 
are desirable. They may be made of sheet iron, about 
one-third of an inch in diameter, and are very useful in many 
examinations where the use of platinum would not be 

(h.) Glass Titles. — For the separation and recognition of 
volatile substances before the blowpipe flame, we use glass 
tubes. These should be about one-eighth of an inch in diame- 
ter, and cut into pieces about five or six inches in length. 
These tubes should have both ends open. 

Tubes are of great value in the examination of volatile sub- 
stances which require oxidizing or roasting, and heating with 
free access of air. Also to ascertain whether a substance 
under examination will sublimate volatile matter of a certain 
appearance. Such substances are selenium, sulphur, arsenic, 
antimony, and tellurium. These substances condense on a cool 
part of the tube, and they present characteristic appearances, or 
they may be recognized by their peculiar smell. These tubes 
must be made of the best kind of glass, white and difficult of 
fusion, and entirely free from lead. The substance to be 
examined must be put in the tube near one end, and exposed 
to the flame of the blowpipe. The end containing the sub- 
stance must be held lower than the other end, and must be 
moved a little over the spirit-lamp before a draught of air is 
produced through the tube. It is a good plan to have a number 


T S 


S K 


of these tubes on hand. After Iiaving used a tube we cut off 
that end of it which contained the substance, with a file, and 
clean it from the subhmate, either by heating it over the 
spirit-lamp, or with a piece of paper wound around a wire. It 
sometimes happens that the substance falls out of the tube 



T Hi: B L o ^v p i p j:: . 

before it becomes sufficiently melted to adhere to the glass. 
To obviate this, we bend the tube not far from the end, at an 
obtuse angle, and place the substance in the angle, whereby 
the tube may be lowered as m-uch as necessary. Fig. 9 will 
give the student a comprehension of the processes described, 
and of the manner of bending the tubes. 

{i.) Glass Tubes closed at one End. — If we wish to expose 
volatile substances to heat, with the exclusion of air as much 
as possible, or to ascertain the contents of water, or other 
volatile fluids, or for the purpose of heating substances which 
will decrepitate, we use glass tubes closed at one end. These 
tubes must be about one-eighth of an inch wide, and from 
two to three inches in length. They should be made of white 
glass, difficult of fusion, and free from lead. They should be 
closed at one end, as figured in the margin, Fig. 10. 


When a substance is to be examined for the purpose of 

1 T S U S E . 31 

ascertaiaiug whether it contains combustible matter, as sulphur 
or arsenic, and where we wish to avoid oxidation, we use these 
tubes without extending the closed end, in order that there 
may be as little air admitted as possible, as is represented in 
tube B. But when a substance to be examined is to be tested 
for water, or other incombustible volatile matters, we employ 
tubes with little bulbs blown at one end, such as represented at 
tube A. Here there is room for a circulation of air at the bot- 
tom of the tube, by which the volatile matter rises more easily. 
In some cases, it is necessary to draw the closed end out to a 
fine point, as in the tubes C and D. Either one or the other of 
these tubes is employed, depending upon the nature of the sub- 
stance used. The sublimates condense at the upper part of the 
tube a, and can be there examined and recognized. These tubes, 
before being used, must be thoroughly dried and cleaned. In 
experimenting with them, they should not be exposed at once 
to the hottest part of the flame, but should be submitted to the 
heat gradually. If the substance is of such a nature that it 
will sublime at a low heat, the tube should be held more hori- 
zontal, while a higher heat is attained by bringing the tube to 
a more vertical position. 


EdvJcorator or IVashing Bottle. — Take a glass bottle of the 
capacity of about twelve ounces, and close the mouth of it very 
tight with a cork, through which a short glass tube is fitted 
airtight. The external end of this tube is drawn out to a 
point, with a very fine orifice. The bottle should be filled 
about half full of water. By blowing air into the bottle 
through the tube, and then turning it downwards, the com- 
pressed air will expel a fine stream of water through the fine 
orifice with considerable force. We use this washing bottle. 
Fig. 11, for the purpose of rinsing the small particles of coal 
from the reduced metals. 


The B l c) av pipe 

Fig. II. 

Agate Mortar and Pestk. — This mortar is used for the pnrpose 
of pulverizing hard substances, and for mixing fluxes. As this 
mortar will not yield to abrasion, there is no danger of any 
foreign matter becoming mixed with the substance pulverized 
in it. It should be cleaned after use with pumice stone. Steel 
mortars are very useful for the pulverization of hard bodies ; 
but for all those substances which require great care in their 
analysis, and which can be obtained in very minute quantity, 
the agate mortar alone should be used. 

A hammer made of steel is necessary. This should have the 
edge square. 

A small anvil, polished on the surface, is also required. It is 
frequently used to test the malleability of metals. 

A knife, for the purpose of ascertaining the hardness of mine- 

The student should also be provided with several three-edged 
files, and likewise with some flat ones. 

A microscope, an instrument with two lenses, or with such a 
combination of lenses, that they may be used double or single, 

Its Use. 


is frequently necessary for the examination of blowpipe experi- 
ments, or the reaction of the fluxes. Common lenses, howso- 
ever cheap they may be, are certainly not recommended. A 
microscope with achromatic lenses can now be purchased so 
cheap that there is no longer any necessity of procuring one 
with the common lens. Besides, there is no reliability w^hatever 
to be placed in the revelations of the common lens ; while on 
the contrary, the deceptive appearances which minute objects 
assume beneath such lenses are more injurious than otherwise. 
A small cheap set of magnifying glasses are all that is required 
for the purpose of blowpipe analysis, Fig. 12. 

Fig. 12. 

A small magnet should be kept on hand, for the purpose of 
testing reduced metals. 

Ni'pjpers, for the purpose of breaking off pieces of minerals 
for analysis, without injuring the entire piece, are indispensable, 
Fio; 13. 

Fig. 13. 

A pair of scissors is required to trim the wick of the lamp? 
aci for the trimming of the edge of platinum foil. 

34 The B l o w p i r e . 

A small spatula sLould be kept for the purpose of mixing 
substances with fluxes. 


Those substances which possess the property of acting upon 
other substances, in such a characteristic manner that they can 
be recognized, either by their color, or by their effervescence, 
or by the peculiar precipitation produced, are termed reagents. 
The phenomena thus produced is termed reaction. AVe use 
those reagents, or tests, for the purpose of ascertaining the 
presence or the absence of certaui substances, through the 
jDCCuliar phenomena produced when brought in contact with 

The number of reagents employed in blowpipe analysis is not 
great, and therefore w^e shall here give a brief description of their 
preparation and use. It is indispensably necessary that they 
should be chemically pure, as every admixture of a foreign sub- 
stance would only produce a false result. Some of them have 
a strong affinity for w^ater, or are deliquescent, and consequently 
absorb it greedily from the air. These must be kept in glass 
bottles, with glass stoppers, fitted air-tight by grinding. 


1. Carhonate of Soda. — (NaoCOg). Wash the bicarbonate 
of soda (XaHCOg) upon a filter, with cold water, until the 
filtrate ceases to give, after neutralization wdth diluted nitric 
acid (HXO3), a precipitate with nitrate of baryta, Ba(jSr03)2, 
or nitrate of silver (AgXOg). That left upon the filter we 
make red hot in a platinum, silver, or porcelain dish. One 
atom of carbonic acid is expelled, and the residue is carbonate 
of soda. 

A solution of soda must not be changed by the addition of 
sulphide of ammonium. And when neutralized wdth hydro- 
chloric acid, and evaporated to dryness, and again dissolved 
in water, there must be no residue left. 

I T S U S E . - 35 

Carbonate of soda is an excellent agent in reduction, in 
consequence of its easy fusibility, whereby it causes the close 
contact of the oxides with the charcoal support, so that the 
blowpipe flame can reach every part of the substance under 

For the decomposition and determination of insoluble sub- 
stances, particularly the silicates, carbonate of soda is indis- 
pensable. But for the latter purpose, we use with advantage 
i\ mixture of ten parts of soda and thirteen parts of dry car- 
bonate of potash, which mixture fuses more easily than the 
carbonate of soda alone. 

2. Hydrate of Baryta, Ba(H0)2. — This salt is used some- 
times for the detection of alkalies in silicates. Mix one part 
of the substance with about four parts of the hydrate of baryta, 
and expose it to the blowpipe flame. The hydrate of baryta 
combines with the silicic acid, and forms the super-basic silicate 
of baryta, while the oxides become free. The fused mass must 
be dissolved in hydrochloric acid, which converts the oxides 
into chlorides. Evaporate to dryness, and dissolve the residue 
in water. The silicic acid remains insoluble. 

The hydrate of baryta is prepared by mixing six parts of 
finely powdered heavy-spar (BaSOJ with one part of char- 
coal and one and a half parts of wheat flour, and exposing 
this mixture in a Hessian crucible with a cover to a strong and 
continuous red heat. The cooled chocolate-brown mass must 
be boiled with twenty parts of water, and, while boiling, there 
must be added the oxide of copper in sufficient quantity, or 
until the liquid will not impart a black color to a solution of 
acetate of lead (PbA.) The liquid must be filtered while 
hot, and as it cools the hydrate of baryta appears in crystals. 
These crystals must be washed with a little cold water, and 
then heated at a low temperature in a porcelain dish until the 
crystal water is expelled. The hydrate of baryta melts by a 
low red heat without losing its water of hydration. 

3, JBisulphate of Potassa (KHSO4). — At a red heat the 
}\alf of the sulphuric acid of this salt becomes free, and thus 

36 T ir E B I. o w r i r i: . 

separates and expels volatile substances, by wliicli we can 
recognize lithium, boracic acid, nitric acid, fluoric acid, bromine, 
iodine, chlorine ; or it decomposes and reveals some other 
conjpounds, as, for instance, the salts of the titanic, tantalio 
and tungstic acids. The bisulphate of potash is also used for 
the purpose of converting a substance into sulphate, or to free 
it at once from certain constituents. These sulphates are dis- 
solved in water, by which we are enabled to effect the sepa- 
ration of its various constituents. 

Preparation. — Two parts of coarsely powdered sulphate of 
potash are placed in a porcelain crucible, and one part of pure 
sulphuric acid is poured over it. Expose this to heat over the 
spirit-lamp, until the whole becomes a clear liquid. The cooled 
mass must be of a pure white color, and may be got out of the 
crucible by inverting it. It must be kept in a fine powder. 

4. Oxalate of Potassa (KG).- — Dissolve bioxalate of pot- 
ash in vfater, and neutralize with carbonate of potash. Evapo- 
rate the solution at a low heat to dryness, stirring constantly 
towards the close of the operation. The dry residue is to be 
kept in the form of a powder. 

The oxalate of potash, at a low red heat, eliminates a consid- 
erable quantity of carbonic oxide, which, having a strong 
affinity for oxygen, with which it forms carbonic acid, it is 
therefore a powerful agent of reduction. It is in many cases 
preferable to carbonate of soda. 

5. Cyanide of Potassiuni (Cy, K). — In the dry method of 
analysis, this salt is one of the most efficient agents for the 
reduction of metaUic oxides. It separates not only the metals 
from their oxygen compounds, but likewise from their sulphur 
compounds, while it is converted through the action of the 
oxygen into carbonate of potash, or, in the latter case, combines 
with the sulphur and forms the sulphureted cyanide of potassium. 
This separation is facilitated by its easy fusibility. But in 
many cases it melts too freely, and therefore it is better to mix 
it, for blowpipe analysis, with an equal quantity of soda. This 
mixture has great powers of reduction, and it is easily ab- 

I T S U S E . 37 

sorbed by the charcoal, ^vhile the globules of reduced metal 
are visible in the greatest purity. 

Preparation. — Deprive the ferrocyauide of potassium 
(K4FeCy6) of its water by heating it over the spirit-lamp 
in a porcelain dish. Mix eight parts of this anhydrous sail 
with three parts of dry carbonate of potash, and fuse the 
mixture by a low red heat in a Hessian, or still better, in an 
iron crucible with a cover, until the mass flows quiet and clear, 
and a sample taken up with an iron spatula appears perfectly 
white. Pour the clear mass out into a china or porcelain dish 
or an iron plate, but with caution that the fine iron par- 
ticles which have settled to the bottom, do not mix with it. 
The white fused mass must be powdered, and kept from 
the air. The cyanide of potassium thus prepared, contains 
some of the cyanate of potassa, but the admixture does not 
deteriorate it for blowpipe use. It must be perfectly white, 
free from iron, charcoal, and sulphide of potassium. The solu- 
tion of it in water must give a white precipitate with a solution 
of lead, and v/hen neutralized with hydrochloric acid, and 
evaporated to dryness, it must not give an insoluble residue by 
dissolving it again in v/ater. 

6. Nitrate of Potassa, SoJtpdre (KXOo). — Saturate boil- 
ing water with commercial saltpetre, filter while hot in a 
beaker glass, which is to be placed in cold water, and stir 
while the solution is cooling. The greater part of the salt- 
petre will crystallize in very fine crystals. Place these crystals 
upon a filter, and wash them with a little cold vv^ater, until a 
solution of nitrate of silver ceases to exhibit any reaction upon 
the filtrate. These crystals must be dried and powdered. 

Saltpetre, when heated with substances easy of oxidation, 
yields its oxygen quite readily, and is, therefore, a powerful 
means of oxidation. In blowpipe analysis, we use it particu- 
larly to convert sulphides (as those of arsenic, antimony, &c.) 
into oxides and acids. We furthermore use saltpetre for the 
purpose of producing a complete oxidation cf small quantities 
of metallic oxides, which oxidize with difficulty in the oxidation 

38 T II K B L o w p I r E . 

flame, so that the color of the bead, iu its highest state of oxi- 
dation, shall be visible, as for instance, manganese dissolved in 
the microcosmic salt. 

7. Biborate of soda, horax — Xall(BOo),,. — Commercial 
borax is seldom pure enough for a reagent. A solution of 
borax must not give a precipitate with carbonate of potassa •, 
or, after the addition of dilute nitric acid, it must remain clear 
upon the addition of nitrate of silver, or nitrate of baryta. Or 
a small piece of the dry salt, fused upon a platinum wire, must 
give a clear and uncolored glass, as well in the oxidation flame 
as in the reduction flame. If these tests indicate a foreign 
admixture, the borax must be jjurified by re-crystallization. 
These crystals are washed upon a filter, dried, and heated, to 
expel the crystal water, or until the mass ceases to svrell up, 
and it is reduced to powder. 

Boracic acid is incombustible, and has a strong affinity for 
oxides when fused with them ; therefore, it not only directly 
combines with oxides, but it expels, by fusion, all other volatile 
acids from their salts. Furthermore, boracic acid promotes the 
oxidation of metals and sulphur, and induces haloid compounds, 
in the oxidation flame, to combine with the rising oxides. 
Borates thus made, melt generally by themselves ; but admixed 
with borate of soda, they fuse much more readily, give a clear 
bead. Borax acts cither as a flux, or through the formation 
of double salts. 

In borax, we have the action of free boracic acid, as Vv^ell as 
borate of soda, and for that reason it is an excellent reagent for 
blowpipe analysis. 

All experiments in which borax is employed should be effected 
upon platinum wire. The hook of the wire should be heated 
red hot, and then dipped into the powdered borax. This shonld 
be exposed to the oxidation flame, when it will be fused to a 
bead, which adheres to the hook. This should be then dipped 
into the powdered substance, which will adhere to it if it is 
hot ; but if the bead is cool, it must be previously moistened. 
ExT>ose this bead to the oxidation flame until it ceases to 

I T S U S E . 39 

change, then allow it to cool, when it should be exposed to the 
reduction flame. Look for the following in the oxidation flame : 

(1.) Whether the heated substance is fused to a clear bead or 
not, and whether the bead remains transparent after cooling. 
The beads of some substances, for instance those of the alkaline 
earths, are clear while hot ; but upon cooling, are milk-white 
and enamelled. Some substances give a clear bead when heated 
and when cold, but appear enamelled when heated intermittingly 
or with a flame which changes often from oxidation to reduction, 
or with an unsteady flame produced by too strong a blast. The 
reason is an incomplete fusion, while from the basic borate com- 
pound a part of the base is separated. As the boracic acid is 
capable of dissolving more in the heat, a bead will be clear while 
hot, enamelled when cold, as a part in the latter instance will 
become separated. 

(2.) Whether the substance dissolves easily or not, and 
whether it intumesces from arising gases. 

(3.) Whether the bead, when exposed to the oxidation flame, 
exhibits any color, and whether the color remains after the 
bead shall have cooled, or whether the color fades. 

(4.) Whether the bead exhibits any other reaction in the 
reduction flame. 

The bead should not be overcharged with the substance under 
examination, or it will become colored so deeply as not to 
present any transparency, or the color light enough to discern 
its hue. 

8. Microcosmic Salt — Phosphate of Soda and Ammonia — 
(N'aXH4HP04). — Dissolve six parts of phosphate of soda 
(Na2HP04), and one part of .pure chloride of Ammonium 
(NH^CL), in two parts of boiling water, and allow it to cool. 
The greatest part of the formed double salt crystallizes, while 
the mother-liquid contains chloride of sodium, and some of 
the double salt. The crystals must be dissolved in as little 
boiling water as possible, and re-crystallized. These crystals 
must be dried and powdered. 

"When this double salt is heated, the water and the ammonia 

4:0 T II E 1> L O W PIPE. 

escape, while the iunombustible residue has a composition simi- 
lar to borax, viz., a free acid and an easily fusible salt. The 
effect of it is, therefore, similar to the borax. The free phos- 
phoric acid expels, likewise, most other acids from their combi- 
nations, and combines with metallic oxides. 

For supports, the platinum wire may be used, but the hook 
must be smaller than when borax is used, or the bead will not 
adhere. As for all the other experiments with this salt, the 
microscosmic salt is used the same as borax. 

9. Nitrate of Cobalt. — Co ( NO3 )2. — This salt can be pre- 
pared by dissolving pure oxide of cobalt in diluted nitric acid, 
and evaporating to dryness with a low heat. The dry residue 
should be dissolved in ten parts of water, and filtered. The 
filtrate is now ready for use, and should be kept in a bottle 
with a glass stopper. If the pure oxide of cobalt cannot be 
procured, then it may be prepared by mixing two parts of finely 
powdered glance of cobalt with four parts of saltpetre, and one 
part of dry carbonate of potassa with one part of water free 
from carbonate of soda. This mixture should be added in suc- 
cessive portions into a red-hot Hessian crucible, and the heat 
continued until the mass is fused, or at least greatly diminished 
in volume. The cooled mass must be triturated with hot water, 
and then heated with hydrochloric acid until it is dissolved and 
forms a dark green solution, which generally presents a gelati- 
nous appearance, occasioned by separated silica. The solution 
is to be evaporated to dryness, the dry residue moistened with 
hydrochloric acid, boiled with water, filtered and neutralized 
while hot with carbonate of ammonia, until it ceases to give 
an acid reaction with test-paper. This must now be filtered 
again, ar^i carbonate of potassa added to the filtrate as long as 
precipitate is produced. This precipitate is brought upon a filter 
aid washed thoroughly, and then dissolved in diluted nitric acid. 
This is evaporated to dryness, and one part of it is dissolved in 
ten parts of water for use. 

The oxide of cobalt combines, with strong heat in the 
oxidation flame, with various earths and infusible metallic 

I T s U s K . 41 

oxides, and thus produces peculiarly colored compounds, and 
is therefore used for their detection ; (alumina, magnesia, oxide 
of zinc, oxide of tin, etc.) Some of the powdered substance 
is heated upon charcoal in the flame of oxidation, and moist- 
ened with a drop of the solution of the nitrate of cobalt, when 
the oxidation flame is thrown upon it. Alumina gives a pure 
blue color, the oxide of zinc a bright green, magnesia a light 
red, and the oxide of tin a bluish-green color ; but the latter 
is only distinctly visible after cooling. 

The dropping bottle, is the most useful apparatus for 
the purpose of getting small quantities of fluid. It is com- 
posed of a glass tube, drawn out to a point, with a small 
orifice. Tiiis tube passes through the cork of the bottle. 
By pressing in the cork into the neck of the bottle, the air 
within will be compressed, and the liquid will rise in the tube. 
If now we draw the cork out, wdth the tube filled with the 
fluid, and pressing the finger upon the upper orifice, the fluid 
can be forced out in the smallest quantity, even to a fraction 
of a drop. 

10. Tin. — This metal is used in the form of foil, cut into 
strips about half an inch wide. Tin is very susceptible of 
oxidation, and therefore deprives oxidized substances of their 
oxygen very quickly, when heated in contact with them. It 
is employed in blowpipe analysis, for the purpose of producing 
in glass beads a lower degree of oxidation-, particularly if the 
substance under examination' contains only a small portion of 
such oxide. These oxides give a characteristic color to the 
bead, and thus are detected. The bead is heated upon char- 
coal in the reduction flame, with a small portion of the tin, 
whereby some of the tin is melted and mkes with the bead. 
The bead should be reduced quickly in the reduction flame, for 
by continuing the blast too great a while, the oxide of tin 
separates the other oxides in the reduced or metallic state, 
while we only require that they shall only be converted into 
a sub-oxide, in order that its peculiar color may be recognized 
in the bead. The addition of too much tin causes the bead 

i2 T II E B L O W P I P K . 

to present an unclean appearance, and prevents tlie j'equired 

11. Silica, (SiO;). — This acid docs not even expel carbonic 
acid in the wet way, but in a glowing heat it expels the 
strongest volatile acids. In blowpipe analysis, we use it fused 
with carbonate of soda to a bead, as a test for sulphuric acid, 
and in some cases for phosphoric acid. Also with carbonate 
of soda and borax, for the purpose of separating tin from 

Finely powdered quartz will answer these purposes. If it 
cannot be procured, take well washed white sand and mix it 
with two parts of carbonate of soda and two parts of car- 
bonate of potassa. Melt the materials together, pound up the 
cooled mass, dissolve in hot water, filter, add to the filtrate 
hydrochloric acid, and evaporate to dryness. Moisten the 
dry residue with hydrochloric acid, and boil in water. The 
silica remains insoluble. It should be washed well, dried, and 
heated, and then reduced to pov/der. 

12. Test-papers. — {a.) Blue Litmus Pajper. — Dissolve one 
part of litmus in six or eight parts of water, and filter. Divide 
the filtrate into two parts. In one of the parts neutralize the 
free alkali by stirring it with a glass rod dipped in diluted 
sulphuric acid, until the fluid appears slightly red. Then mix 
the two parts together, and draw slips of unsized paper, free 
from alkali, such as fine filtering paper. Hang these strips on 
a line to dry, in the shade and free from floating dust. If the 
litmus solution is too light, it will not give sufficient character- 
istic indications, and if too dark it is not sensitive enough. 
The blue color of the paper- should be changed to red, when 
brought in contact with a solution containing the minutest trace 
of free acid ; but it should be recollected that the neutral salts 
of the heavy metals produce the same change. 

(h.) Red Litmus Pa;per. — The preparation of the red litmus 
paper is similar to the above, the acid being added until a red 
color is obtained. Keddened litmus paper is a very sensitive 
reag-ent for free alkalies, the carbonates of the alkalies, alkaline 

Its Use. 43 

earths, sulpliides of the alkalies and of the alkaline earths, and 
alkaline salts with weak acids, such as boracic acid. These 
substances restore the original blue color of the litmus. 

(c.) Logicood Pajper. — Take bruised logwood, boil it in 
water, filter, and proceed as above. Logwood paper is a very 
delicate test for free alkalies, which impart a violet tint to it. 
It is sometimes used to detect hydrofluoric acid, which changes 
its color to yellow. 

All the test-papers are to be cut into narrow strips, and 
preserved in closely stopped vials. The especial employment 
of the test-papers we shall allude to in another place. 


13. Fused Boracic Add (B0O3). — The commercial article is 
sufficiently pure for blowpipe analysis. It is employed in some 
cases to detect phosphoric acid, and also minute traces of 
copper in lead compounds. 

14. Fluorspar (CaFP). — This substance should be pounded 
fine and strongly heated. Fluorspar is often mixed with 
boracic acid, which renders it unfit for analytical purposes. 
Such an admixture can be detected if it be mixed with bi- 
sulphate of potassa, and exposed upon platinum vrire to the 
interior or blue flame. It is soon fused, the boracic acid is 
reduced and evaporated, and by passing through the external 
flame it is reoxidized, and colors the flame green. We use 
fluorspar mixed with bisulphate of potassa as a test for litbia 
and boracic acid in complicated compounds. 

15. Oxalate of Nickel (XiO). — It is prepared by dissolv- 
ing the pure oxide of nickel in diluted hydrochloric acid. 
Evaporate to dryness, dissolve in water, and precipitate with 
oxalate of ammonia. The precipitate must be washed with 
caution upon a filter, and then dried. It is employed in blow- 
pipe analysis to detect salts of potassa in the presence of 
sodium and lithium. 

16. Oxide of Copper (CuO). — Pure metallic copper is dis- 

44: T n E B L o w p I i* e . 

solved in nitric acid. Tlie solution is evaporated in a porcelain 
dish to dryness, and gradually heated over a spirit-lamp, until 
the blue color of the salt has disappeared and the mass presents 
a uniform black color. The oxide of copper so prepared must 
be powdered, and preserved in a vial. It serves to detect, in 
complicated compounds, minute traces of chlorine. 

It. Antimoniate of Potassa (K4Sb207). — Mix four parts 
of the bruised metal of antimony, with nine parts of saltpetre. 
Throw this mixture, in small portions, into a red-hot Hessian 
crucible, and keep it at a glowing heat for awhile after all the 
mixture is added. Boil the cooled mass with water, and dry 
the residue. Take two parts of this, and mix it with one part 
of dry carbonate of potassa, and expose this to a red heat for 
about half an hour. Then wash the mass in cold water, and 
boil the residue in water ; filter, evaporate the filtrate to dry- 
ness, and then, with a strong heat, render it free of water. 
Powder it while it is warm, and preserve it in closed vials. It 
is used for the detection of small quantities of charcoal in com- 
pound substances, as it shares its oxygen with the carbonaceous 
matter, the antimony becomes separated, and carbonate of 
potassa is produced, which restores red litmus paper to blue, 
and effervesces with acids. 

18. Silver Foil. — A small piece of silver foil is used for the 
purpose of detecting sulphur and the sulphides of the metals, 
vdiich impart a dark stain to it. If no silver foil is at hand, 
strips of filtering paper, impregnated with acetate of lead, will 
answer in many cases. 

19. Nitroprusside of Sodium (NagNO, FeCyg). — This is a 
very delicate test for sulphur, and was discovered by Dr. Playfair. 
This test has lately been examined with considerable ability by 
Prof. J. W. Bailey, of West Point. If any sulphate or sulphide 
is heated by the blowpipe upon charcoal with tlie carbonate 
of soda, and the fused mass is placed on a watch-glass, with a 
little water, and a small piece of the nitroprusside of sodium 
is added, there will be produced a splendid purple color. This 
color, or reaction, will bo produced from any substance contain- 

I T S U S E . 45 

ing sulphur, such as the parings of the nails, hair, albumeu, etc. 
In regard to these latter substances, the carbonate of soda 
should be mixed with a little starch, which will prevent the 
loss of any of the sulphur by oxidation. Coil a piece of hair 
around a platinum wire, moisten it, and dip it into a mixture 
of carbonate of soda, to w^hich a little starch has been added, 
and then heat it with the blowpipe, when the fused mass will 
give with the nitroprusside of sodium the characteristic purple 
reaction, indicative of the presence of sulphur. With the 
proper delicacy of manipulation, a piece of hair, half an inch in 
length, will give distinct indications of sulphur. 

Frepai-ation. — The nitroprussides of sodium and potassium 
(for either salt will give the above reactions), are prepared as 
follows : One atom (422 grains) of pulverized ferrocyanide of 
potassium is mixed with five atoms of commercial nitric acid, 
diluted with an equal quantity of w^ater. One-fifth of this 
quantity (one atom) of the acii is sufficient to transfer the 
ferrocyanide into nitroprusside ; but the use of a larger quan- 
tity is found to give the best results. The acid is poured all at 
once upon the ferrocyanide, the cold produced by the mixing 
being sufficient to moderate the action. The mixture first 
assumes a milky appearance, but after a little while, the salt 
dissolves, forming a coffee-colored solution, and gases are 
disengaged in abundance. When the salt is completely dis- 
solved, the solution is found to contain ferrocyanide (red 
prussiate) of potassium, mixed with nitroprusside and nitrate 
of the same base. It is then immediately decanted into a 
large flask, and heated over the water-bath. It continues 
to evolve gas, and after awhile, no longer yields a dark 
blue precipitate with ferrous salts, but a dark green or slate- 
colored precipitate. It is then removed from the fire, and left 
to crystallize, whereupon it yields a large quantity of crystals 
of nitre, and more or less oxamide. The strongly-colored mother 
liquid is then neutralized with carbonate of potash or soda, 
according to the salt to be prepared, and the solution is boiled, 
whereupon it generally deposits a green or brown precipitate, 

4 6 The Blowpipe. 

which must be separated by filtration. Tiie liquid then con- 
tains nothing but nitroprussidc and nitrate of potash or soda. 
The nitrates being the least soluble, are first crystallized, 
and the remaining liquid, on farther evaporation, yields crys- 
tals of the uitropnisside. The sodium salt crystallizes most 
easily. — (Platfair.) 

As some substances, particularly in complicated compounds, 
are not detected with sufficient nicety in the dry way of ana- 
lysis, it will often be necessary to resort to the wet way. It is 
therefore necessary to have prepared the reagents required 
for such testing, as every person, before he can become an 
expert blowpipe analyst, must be acquainted with the charac- 
teristic tests as applied in the wet way. 

In the absence of nitroprussidc of sodium, pulverize the 
assay and fuse it with soda and borax in the inner flame ; 
place the fused mass upon a clean silver surface and wet it ; 
a blackening of the surface of the metal indicates the presence 
of sulphur. 

Part II 


QjALiTATivE ANALYSIS Fcfei's to thosG examiiiatious "which 
relate simply to tlie presence or the absence of certain sub. 
stances, irrespective of their quantities. But before we take 
cognizance of special examinations, it vrould facilitate the 
progress of the student to pass through a course of Initiatory 
Exercises. These at once lead into the special analysis of 
all those substances susceptible of examination by the blowpipe. 
The Initiatory Analysis is best studied by adopting the following 
arrangement : 

> 1. Examinations with the glass bulb. 

2. " with the open tube. 

3. " upon charcoal. 

4. " in the platinum forcep?!. 

5. " in the borax bead. 

6. " in microcosmic salt. 

7. " in the carbonate of soda bead. 

8. Confirmatory examinations. 


The glass of which the bulb is made should be entirely free 
from lead, otherwise fictitious results will ensue. If the bulb 

43 T H E B L O W I' I P E . 

be of fliut glass, then by heating it, there is a slightly iridescent 
film caused upon the surface of the glass, which may easily be 
mistaken for arsenic. Besides, this kind of glass is easily fusilJe 
in the oxidating flame of the blowpipe, while, in the reducing 
flame, its ready decomposition would preclude its use entirely. 
The tube should be composed of the potash or hard Bohemian 
glass, should be perfectly white, and very thin, or the heat will 
crack it. 

The tube should be perfectly clean, which can be easily 
attained by wrapping a clean cotton rag around a small stick, 
and inserting it in the tube. Before using the tube, see also 
that it is perfectly dry. 

The quantity of the substance put into the tube for exami- 
nation should be small. From one to three grains is quite 
sufficient, as a general rule, but circumstances vary the quantity. 
The sides of the tube should not catch any of the substance as 
it is being placed at the bottom of the tube, or into the bulb. 
If any of the powder, however, should adhere, it should be 
pushed down with a roll of clean paper, or the clean cotton 
rag referred to above. 

In submitting the tube to the flame, it should be heated at 
first very gently, the heat being increased until the glass begins 
to soften, when the observations of what is ensuing within it 
may be made. 

If the substance be of an organic nature, a peculiar empy^ 
renmatic odor will be given off. If the substance chars, then 
it may be inferred that it is of an organic nature. The matters 
which are given off and cause the empyreuraatic odor, are a 
peculiar oil, ammonia, carbonic acid, acetic acid, water, cyano- 
gen, and frequently other compounds. If a piece of paper is 
heated in the bulb, a dark colored oil condenses upon the sides 
of the tube, which has a strong empyreumatic odor, A piece 
of litmus paper indicates that this oil is acid, as it is quickly 
changed to red by contact with it. A black residue is now 
left in the tube, and upon examination we will find that it is 
charcoal. If, instead of the pape^', a piece of animal substance 

Initiatory Analysis. 49 

13 placed ill the bulb, the reddened litmus paper will be con- 
verted into its original blue color, while charcoal will be left 
at the bottom of the tube. 

A changing of the substance, however, to a dark color, 
should not be accepted as an invariable indication of charcoal, 
as some inorganic bodies thus change color, but the dark 
substance will not be likely to be mistaken for charcoal. By 
igniting the suspected substance with nitrate of potassa, it can 
quickly be ascertained whether it is organic or not, for if the 
latter, the vivid deflagration will indicate it. 

If the substance contains water, it will condense upon the 
cold portion of the tube, and may be there examined as to 
whether it is acid or alkaline. If the former, the matter under 
examination is, perhaps, vegetable ; if the latter, it is of an 
animal nature. The water may be that fluid absorbed, or it 
may form a portion of its constitution. 

If the substance contain sulphur, the sublimate upon the 
cold part of the tube may be recognized by its characteristic 
appearance, especially if the substance should be a sulphide of 
tin, copper, antimony, or iron. The hyposulphites, and several 
other sulphides, also give off sulphur when heated. The 
volatile metals, mercury and arsenic, will, however, sublime 
without undergoing decomposition. As the sulphide of arsenic 
may be mistaken, from its color and appearance, for sulphur, 
it must be examined especially for the purpose of determining 
that point. 

Selenium will likewise sublime by heat as does sulphur. This 
is the case if selenides are present. Selenium gives off the 
smell of decayed horse-radish. 

When the persalts are heated they are reduced to protosalts, 
with the elimination of a part of their acid. This will be 
indicated by the blue litmus paper. 

If some of the neutral salts containing a volatile acid be 
present, they will become decomposed. For instance, the red 
nitrous acid water of the nitrates will indicate the decomposition 
of the salt, especially if it be the nitrate of a metalic oxide. 


50 T u ii: B L o w pipe. 

If there is an odor of sulphur, then it is quite jirobable, if 
no free sulphur be present, that a hyposulphite is decomposed. 

If an oxalate be present, it is decomposed with the evolution 
of carbonic oxide, which may be inflamed at the mouth of the 
tube ; but there are oxalates that give off carbonic acid gas, 
which, of course, will not burn. A cyanide will become decom- 
posed and eliminate nitrogen gas, while the residue is charred. 
Some cyanides are, however, not thus decomposed, as the dry 
cyanides of the earths and alkalies. 

There are several oxides of metals which will sublime, and 
may be thus examined in the tube. Arsenious add sublimes with 
great ease in minute octohedral crystals. The oxides of tellu- 
rium and antimony will sublime, the latter in minute glittering 

There are several metals which will sublime, and may be 
examined in the cold portion of the tube. Mercury condenses 
upon the tube in minute globules. These often do not present 
the metalic appearance until they are disturbed v/ith a glass 
rod, when they attract each other, and adhere as small 
globules. Place in the tube about a grain of red precipitate 
of the drug stores and apply heat, when the oxide will become 
decomposed, its oxygen will escape v/hile the vaporized mer- 
cury will condense upon the cold portion of the tube, and may 
there be examined with a magnifying glass. 

Arsenic, when vaporized, may be known by its peculiar alli- 
aceous odor. Arsenic is vaporized from its metallic state, and 
likewise from its alloys. Several compounds which contain 
arsenic will also sublime, such as the arsenical cobalt. Place 
in the bulb a small piece of arsenical cobalt or " fly-stone," 
and apply heat. The sulphide of arsenic will first rise, but 
soon the arsenic will adhere to the sides of the tube. 

The metals tellurium and cadmium are susceptible of solution, 
but the heat required is a high one. This is best done upon 

The perchloridc of mercury sublimes undecomposod in the bulb, 
previously undergoing fusion. 

IxiTiATORY Analysts. 51 

The protcchloride of mercury likewise snl,Ki:ie?, but it does not 
undergo fusion first, as is the case witli the corrosive sublimate. 

The ammoniacal salts all are susceptible of sublimation, which 
they do without leaving a residue. There are, however, several 
which contain fixed acids, which latter are left in the bulb. 
This is particularly the case with the phosphates and borates 
A piece of red litmus paper will readily detect the escaping 
ammonia, while its odor will indicate its presence with great 
certainty. The halogen compounds of mercury, we should have 
mentioned, also sublime, the red iodide giving a yellow subli- 

The bulb is also a convenient little instrument for the pur- 
pose of heating those substances which phosphoresce, and like- 
wise those salts that decrepitate. 

Should the above reactions not be readily discerned, it should 
not be considered as an indication that the substances are not 
present, for they are frequently expelled in such combinations 
that the above reactions will not take place. This is often the 
case with sulphur, selenium, arsenic, and tellurium. It fre- 
quently happens, likewise, that these substances are in such 
combinations that heat alone will not sublime them ; or else two 
or more of them may arise together, and thus complicate the 
sublimate, so that the eye cannot readily detect either substance. 
Sometimes sulphur and arsenic will coat the tube with a metal- 
like appearance, which is deceptive. This coating presents a 
metallic lustre at its lower portion, but changing, as it pro- 
gresses upward, to a dark brown, light brown, orange or yellow ; 
this sublimate being due to combinations of arsenic and sulphur, 
which compounds are volatilized at a lower temperature than 
metallic arsenic. 

If certain reagents are mixed with many substances, changes 
are effected which would not ensue with heat alone. Formiatc 
of soda possesses the property of readily reducing metallic 
oxides. When this salt is heated, it gives off a quantity of 
carbonic oxide gas. This gas, when in the presence of a metal- 
lic oxide, easily reduces the metal, by withdrawing its oxygen 

52 T H E B L o w p I r E . 

from it, and being changed into carbonic oxide. If a little fly- 
stone is mixed with some formiate of soda, and heated in the 
bulb, the arsenic is reduced, volatilized, and condenses in the 
cool portion of the tube. By this method, the smallest portion 
of a grain of the arsenical compound may be thus examined 
with the greatest readiness. If the residue is now washed, by 
which the soda is got rid of, the metallic arsenic may be obtained 
in small spangles. If the compound examined be the sulphide 
of antimony, the one-thousandth part can be readily detected, and 
hence this method is admirably adapted to the examination of 
medicinal antimonial compounds. The arsenites of silver and cop- 
per are reduced by the formiate of soda to their metals, mixed with 
metallic arsenic. The mercurial salts are all reduced with the 
metal plainly visible as a bright silvery ring on the cool por- 
tion of the tube. The chloride and nitrate of silver are com- 
pletely reduced, and may be obtained after working out the 
soda, as bright metallic spangles. The salts of antimony and 
zinc are thus reduced ; also the sulphate of cadmium. The 
sublimate of the latter, although in appearance not unlike that 
of arsenic, can easily be distingushed by its brighter color. It 
is, in fact, the rich yellow of this sublimate which has led artists 
to adopt it as one of their most valued pigments. 


The substance to be operated upon should be placed in the 
tube, about half an inch from the end, and the flame applied at 
first very cautiously, increasing gradually to the required tempe- 
rature. The tube, in all these roasting operations, as they are 
termed, should be held in an inclined position. The nearer 
perpendicular the tube is held, the stronger is the draught of 
air that passes through it. If but little heat is required in the 
open tube operation, the spirit-lamp is the best method of 
applying the heat. But if a greater temperature is required, 
then recourse must be had to the blowpipe. Upon the angle 
of inclination of the tube depends the amount of air that passes 

Initiatory Analysis 


through it, and therefore, the rapidity of the draught may be 
easily regulated at the will of the operator. The inclination of 
the tube may, as a general rule, be about the angle represented 
in Fi- li. 

Fig. 14. 

The length of the tube must be about six inches, so that the 
portion upon which the substance rested in a previous examina- 
tion may be cut off. The portion of the tube left will answer 
for several similar operations. 

When the substance is under examination, we should devote 
our attention to the nature of the sublimates, and to that of 
the odors of the gases. If sulphur be in the substance experi- 
mented upon, the characteristic odor of sulphurous acid gas will 
readily indicate the sulphur. If metallic sulphides, for instance, 
are experimented upon, the sulphurous acid gas eliminated will 
readily reveal their presence. As it is a property of this gas 
to bleach, a piece of Brazil-wood test paper should be held in 
the mouth of the tube, when its loss of color will indicate the 
presence of the sulphurous acid. It often happens, too, that a 
slight deposition of sulphur will be observed upon the cool por- 

54: ■ T H E B L o w r I P E . 

tion of the This is pai-ticularly the case with those sul- 
phides which yield sublimates of sulphur when heated in the 

Selerimm undergoes but slight oxidation, but it becomes 
readily volatilized, and may be observed on the cool portion 
of the tube. At the same time the nose, if applied close to the 
end of the tube, will detect the characteristic odor of rotten 
horse-radish. Arsenic also gives its peculiar alliaceous odor, 
which is so characteristic that it can be easily detected. A 
few of the arsenides produce this odor. The sublimates should 
be carefully observed, as they indicate often with great cer- 
tainty the presence of certain substances ; for instance, that 
of arsenic. The sublimate, in this case, presents itself as the 
arsenious acid, or the metallic arsenic itself. If it be the former, 
it may be discerned by aid of the magnifying glass as beauti- 
ful glittering octohedral crystals. If the latter, the metallic 
lustre will reveal it. 

But it will be observed that while some of the arsenides are 
sublimed at a comparatively low temperature, others require 
a very high one. 

Antimony gives a white sublimate when its salts are roasted, 
as the sulphide, or the antimonides themselves, or the oxide of 
this metal. This white sublimate is not antimonious acid, but 
there is mixed with it the oxide of antimony with which the 
acid is sublimed. As is the case with arsenious acid, the anti- 
monious acid may, by dexterous heating, be driven from one 
portion of the tube to another. 

Tellurium, or its acid and oxide, may be got as a sublimate 
in the tube. The tellurious acid, unlike the arsenious and anti- 
monious acids, cannot be driven from one portion of the tube 
to another, but, on the contrary, it fuses into small clear 
globules, visible to the naked eye sometimes, but quite so with 
the aid of the magnifying glass. 

Lead, or its chloride, sublimes like tellurium, and, like that 
substance, fuses into globules or drops. 

Bismuth, or its sulphide, sublimes into an orange or brown 

Initiatory Analysis. 55 

isli globules, when it is melted, as dLrected above, for tellu- 
rium. The color of the bismuth and lead oxides are somewhat 
similar, although that of the latter is paler. 

If any mineral containing Jiuorhm is fused, first with the 
microcosmic salt bead, then put into the tube, and the flame 
•jf the blowpipe be directed into the tube upon the bead, hydro- 
^uoric acid is disengaged and attacks the inside of the tube. 
The fluoride of calcium, or fluorspar, may be used for this 

During the roasting, a brisk current of air should be allowed 
to pass through the tube, whereby unoxidized matter may be 
prevented from volatilization, and the clogging up of the sub- 
stance under examination be prevented, 


In making examinations upon charcoal, it is quite necessary 
that the student should make himself familiar with the different 
and characteristic appearances of the deposits upon the char- 
coal. In this case I have found the advice given by Dr. Sherer 
to be the best ; that is, to begin with the examination of the 
pure materials first, until the eye becomes familiarized with the 
appearances of their incrustations upon charcoal. 

The greater part of the metals fuse w^hen submitted to the 
heat of the blowpipe, and if exposed to the outer flame, they 
oxidize. These metals, termed the noble metals, do not oxidize, 
but they fuse. The metals platinum, iridium, rhodium, osmium 
and palladium do not fuse. The metal osmium, if exposed to 
the flame of oxidation, fuses and is finally dissipated as osmic 
acid. In the latter flame, the salts of the noble metals are 
reduced to the metallic state, and the charcoal is covered with 
the bright metal. 

We shall give a brief description of the appearance of the 
principal elementary bodies upon being fused with charcoal. 
This plan is that deemed the most conducive to the progress 
of the student, by Berzelius, Piattner, and Sherer. Experience 

56 The B l o w pipe. 

lias taught us that this method is the most efficient tha; could 
have beeu devised as an initiatory exercise for the student, ere 
he commences a more concise and methodical method of analy- 
sis. In these reactions upon charcoal, we shall follow nearly 
the language of Plattner and Sherer. 

Selenium is not difficult of fusion, and gives off brown fumes 
in either the oxidation or reduction flame. The deposit upon the 
charcoal is of a steel-grey color, with a slightly metallic lustre. 
The deposit however that fuses outside of this steel-grey one is 
of a dull violet color, shading off to a light brown. Under the 
flame of oxidation this deposit is easily driven from one portion 
of the charcoal to another, w^hile the appUcation of the re- 
ducing flame volatilizes it with the evolution of a beautiful 
blue light. The characteristic odor of decayed horse-radish 
distinguishes the volatilization of this metal. 

Tellurium. — This metal fuses with the greatest readmess, 
and is reduced to vapor under both flames with fumes, and 
coats the charcoal with a deposit of tellurous acid. This 
deposit is white near the centre, and is of a dark yellow near 
the edges. It may be driven from place to place by the flame 
of oxidation, while that of reduction volatilizes it with a green 
flame. If there be a mixture of selenium present, then the 
color of the flame is bluish-green. 

Aesexic. — This metal is volatihzed without fusing, and 
covers the charcoal both in the oxidizing and reducing flames 
with a deposit of arseuious acid. This coating is white in the 
centre, and grey towards the edges, and is found some distance 
from the assay. By the most gentle apphcation of the flame, 
it is immediately volatilized, and if touched for a moment with 
the reducing flame, it disappears, tinging the flame pale blue. 
During volatLLizatiou a strong garlic odor is distiucly percepti- 
ble, very characteristic of arsenic, and by which its presence 
in any compound may be immediately recognized. 

AxTBioMY. — This metal fuses readily, and coats the charcoal 
under both flames with antimonious acid. This incrustation is 
of a white color where thick, but of a bluish tint where it is 

Initiatoey Analysis 57 

thill, and is found nearer to the assay than that of arsenic. 
When greatly heated by the flame of oxidation, it is driven 
from place to place without coloring the flame, but when vola- 
tilized by the flame of reduction, it tinges the flame blue. As 
antimonious acid is not so volatile as arsenious acid, they may 
thus be easily distinguished from one another. 

When metallic antimony is fused upon charcoal, and the 
metallic bead raised to a red heat, if the blast be suspended, 
the fluid bead remains for some time at this temperature, giving 
off opaque white fumes, which are at first deposited on the 
surrounding charcoal, and then upon the bead itself, covering 
it with white, pearly crystals. The phenomenon is dependent 
upon the fact, that the heated button of antimony, in absorbing- 
oxygen from the air, developes sufficient heat to maintain the 
metal in a fluid state, until it becomes entirely covered with 
crystals of antimonious acid so formed. 

Bismuth. — This metal fuses with ease, and under both flames 
covers the charcoal with a coating of oxide, which, while hot, 
is of an orange-yellow color, and after cooling, of a lemon-yel- 
low color, passing, at the edges, into a bluish white. This 
white coating consists of the carbonate of bismuth.. The subli- 
mate from bismuth is formed at a less distance from the assay 
than is the case with antimony. It may be driven from place 
to place by the application of either flame ; but in so doing, 
the oxide is first reduced by the heated charcoal, and the 
metallic bismuth so formed is volatilized and reoxidized. The 
flame is uncolored. 

Lead. — This metal readily fuses under either flame, and 
incrusts the charcoal with oxide at about the same distance 
from the assay as is the case with bismuth. The oxide is, while 
hot, of a dark lemon-yellow color, but upon cooling, becomes 
of a sulphur yellow. The carbonate which is formed upon the 
charcoal, beyond the oxide, is of a bluish-white color. If the 
yellow incrustation of the oxide be heated with the flame of 
oxidation, it disappears, undergoing changes similar to those of 


58 T ][ K B I. <) w p r r E. 

bismuth above meiitioiiecl. Under the flame of reducLioii, it, 
however, disaj^pears, tinging the flame blue. 

Cadmium. — This metal fuses with ease, and, in the flame of 
oxidation, takes fire, and burns with a deep yellow color, giving 
off brown fumes, which coat the charcoal, to within a small 
distance of the assay, with oxide of cadmium. This coating 
exhibits its characteristic reddish-brown color most clearly when 
cold. Where the coating is very thin, it passes to an orange 
color. As oxide of cadmium is easily reduced, and the metal 
very volatile, the coating of oxide may be driven from place to 
place by the application of either flame, to neither of which 
doe;5 it impart any color. Around the deposit of oxide, the 
charcoal has occasionally a variegated tarnish. 

Zinc. — This metal fuses with ease, and takes fire in the flame 
of oxidation, burning with a brilliant greenish-white light, and 
forming thick white fumes of oxide of zinc, which coat the 
charcoal round the assay. This coating is yellow while hot, 
but when perfectly cooled, becomes white. If heated with the 
flame of oxidation, it shines brilliantly, but is not volatilized, 
since the heated charcoal is, under these circumstances, insufS- 
cieut to effect its reduction. Even under the reducing flame, 
it disappears very slowly. 

Tix. — This metal fuses readily, and, in the flame of oxidation, 
becomes covered with oxide, which, by a strong blast, may 
be easily blown off. In the reducing flame, the fused metal 
assumes a white surface, and the charcoal becomes covered with 
oxide. This oxide is of a pale yellow color while hot, and is 
quite brilliant when the flame of oxidation is directed upon 
it. After cooling, it becomes white. It is found immediately 
around the assay, and cannot be volatilized by the application 
of either flame. 

MoLYBDEXUM. — This metal, in powder, is infusible before the 
blowpipe. If heated in the outer flame, it becomes gradually 
oxidized, and incrusts the charcoal, at a small distance from 
the assay, with molybdic acid, which, near the assay, forms 

Initiatory Analysis. 59 

transparent crystalline scales, and is elsewhere deposited as a 
fine powder. The incrustation, while hot, is of a yellow color, 
but becomes white after cooling. It may be volatilized by 
heating with either flame, and leaves the surface of the char- 
coal, when perfe:tly cooled, of a dark-red copper color, with a 
metallic lustre, due to the oxide of molybdenum, which has been 
formed by the reducing action of the charcoal upon the molyb. 
die acid. In the reducing flame, metallic molybdenum remains 

Silver. — This metal, .when fused alone, and kept in this 
state for some time, under a strong oxidizing flame, covers the 
charcoal with a thin film of dark reddish-brown oxide. If the 
silver be alloyed with lead, a yellow incrustation of the oxide 
of that metal is first formed, and afterwards, as the silver 
becomes more pure, a dark red deposit is formed on the char- 
coal beyond. If the silver contains a small quantity of anti- 
mony, a white incrustation of antimonious acid is formed, which 
becomes red on the surface if the blast be continued. And if 
lead and antimony are both present in the silver, after the greater 
part of these metals have been volatilized, a beautiful crimson 
incrustation is produced upon the charcoal. This result is 
sometimes obtained in fusing rich silver ores on charcoal. 


In blow^pipe experiments, it rarely occurs that we have to 
deal with pure metals, which, if not absolutely non-volatile, 
are recognized by the incrustation they form upon charcoal. 
Some compound substances, when heated upon charcoal, form 
white incrustations, resembling that formed by antimony, and 
which, when heated, may, in like manner, be driven from place 
to place. Among these are certain sulphides, as sulphide of 
potassium, and sulphide of sodium, which are formed by the 
action cf the reducing flame upon the sulphates of potassa and 
soda, a .id are, when volatilized, reconverted into those sulphates, 
and as such deposited on the charcoal. No incrustation is, 

00 T 11 E B L O W P I P E . 

however, formed, until the whole of the alkahue sulphate has 
been absorbed into the charcoal, and has parted with its oxy- 
gen. As snlphide of potassium is more volatile than sulphide 
of sodium, an incrustation is formed from the former sooner 
than from the latter of these salts, and is considerably thicker 
in the former case. If the potash incrustation be touched with 
the reducing flame, it disappears with a violet-colored flame ; 
and if a soda incrustation be treated in like manner, an orange- 
yellow flame is produced. 

Sulphide of lithium, formed by heating the sulphate in the 
reducing flame, is volatilized in similar manner by a strong 
blast, although less readily than the sulphide of sodium. It 
affords a greyish white film, which disappears with a crimson 
flame when submitted to the reducing flame. 

Besides the above, the sulphides of bismuth and lead give, 
when heated in either flame, two different incrustations, of 
which the more volatile is of a white color, and consists in the 
one case of sulphate of lead, and in the other of sulphate of 
bismuth. If either of these be heated under the reducing flame, 
it disappears in the former case with a bluish flame, in the 
latter unaccompanied by any visible flame. The incrustation 
formed nearest to the assay consists of the oxide of lead or 
bismuth, and is easily recognized by its color when hot and 
after cooling. There are many other metallic sulphides, which, 
when heated by the blowpipe flame, cover the charcoal with 
a white incrustation, as sulphide of antimony, sulphide of zinc, 
and sulphide of tin. In all these cases, however, the incrusta- 
tion consists of the metallic oxide alone, and either volatilizes 
or remains unchanged, when submitted to the oxidizing flame. 

Of the metallic chlorides there are many which, when heated 
( n charcoal with the blowpipe flame, are volatilized and re- 
ceposited as a white incrustation. Among these are the 
chlorides of potassium, sodium, and lithium, which volatilize 
and cover the charcoal immediately around the assay with a 
thin vrhite film, after they have been fused and absorbed into 
the charcoal, chloride of potassium forms the thickest dopo-sit. 

Initiatory Analysis. G1 

and chloride of litlilum the thinnest, the latter being moreover 
of a greyish-white color. The chlorides of ammonium, mercury, 
and antimony volatilize without fusing. 

The chlorides of zinc, cadmium, lead, bismuth, and tin first 
fuse and then cover the charcoal with two different incrusta- 
tions, one of which is a white volatile chloride, and the other 
a less volatile oxide of the metal. 

Some of the incrustations formed by metallic chlorides dis. 
appear with a colored flame when heated with the reducing 
flame ; thus chloride of potassium affords a violet flame, chlo- 
ride of sodium an orange one, chloride of lithium a crimson 
flame, and chloride of lead a blue one. The other metals 
mentioned above volatilize without coloring the flame. 

The chloride of copper fuses and colors the flame of a beauti- 
ful blue. Moreover, if a continuous blast be directed upon the 
salt, a part of it is driven off in the form of white fumes which 
smell strongly of chlorine, and the charcoal is covered with 
incrustations of three different colors. That which is formed 
nearest to the assay is of a dark grey color, the next, a dark 
yellow passing into brown, and the most distant of a bluish 
white color. If this incrustation be heated under the reducing 
flame, it disappears with a blue flame. 

Metallic iodides and bromides behave upon charcoal in a 
similar manner to the chlorides. Those principally deserving 
of mention are the bromides and iodides of potassium and 
sodium. These fuse upon charcoal, are absorbed into its pores, 
and volatilize in the form of white fumes, which are deposited 
upon the charcoal at some distance from the assay. When 
the saline films so formed are submitted to the reducing flame, 
they disappear, coloring the flame in the same manner as the 
corresponding chlorides. 


Before the student attempts to make an examination in the 
platinum forceps or tongs, be should first ascertain whether 

f>3 T II K B L O W P I P E . 

or not it will act upon the y)latinum. If the substance to be 
examined shall act chemically upon the platinum, then it 
should be examined on the charcoal, and the color of the 
llame ascertained as rigidly as possible. The following list of 
substances produce the color attached to tljem. 

Potash, and all its compounds, with the exception of tlic phosphate 
and the borate, tinge the color of the flame violet. 

Cliloi'idc of copper, Intense blue. 

Lead, Pale clear blue. 

Bromide of copper, .Bluish green. 

Antimony, Bluish green. 

Selenium, Blue. 

Arsenic, Eno;lish green. 


Ammonia, Dark green. 

Boracic acid, Dark green. 

Copper, Dark green. 

Telluriuni, Dark green. 

/^inc, Light green. 

Baryta Apple green. 

Phosphoric acid, Pale green. 

Molybdic acid, x\pple green. 

Telluric acid, Light green. 


Soda, Intense vellow. 

Water, I'eeble yellow. 

Strontia, Intense crimson. 

Lithia, Purplish red. 

Potash, Violet red. 

Lime, Purplish red. 

Initiatoey Analysis. 63 

The student may often be deceived in regard to the colors : 
for instance, if a small splinter of almost any mineral be held 
at the point of the flame of oxidation, it will impart a very slight 
yellow to the flame. This is caused, doubtless, by the water 
contained in the mnieral. If the piece of platinum wire is used, 
and it should be wet with the saliva, as is frequently done by 
the student, then the small quantity of soda existing in that 
fluid will color the flame of a light yellow hue. 


The salts of potash, with the exception of the borate and 
the phosphate, color the flame of a rich violet hue. This color 
is best discovered in the outer flame of the blowpipe, as is the 
case with all the other colors. The flame should be a small 
one, with a lamp having a small wick, while the orifice of the 
blowpipe must be quite small. These experiments should like- 
wise be made in a dark room, so that the colors may be 
discerned with the greatest ease. In investigating with 
potash for the discernment of color, it should be borne in mind 
that the least quantity of soda will entirely destroy the violet 
color of the potash, by the substitution of its own strong- 
yellow color. If there be not more than the two hundredth 
part of soda, the violet reaction of the potash will be destroyed. 
This is likewise the case with the presence of lithia, for its 
peculiar red color will destroy the violet of the potash. There- 
fore in making investigations with the silicates which contain 
potash, the violet color of the latter can only be discerned 
when they are free from soda and lithia. 


(a.) The Chloride of Copper. — Any of the chlorides produce 
a blue color in the blowpipe flame, or any salt which contains 
chlorine will show the blue tint, as the color in this case is 
referable to the chlorine itself. There arc, however, some 

64: T II K J] L O W P I P K.. 

chlorides which, in consequence of tlie peculiar reactions of 
their bases, will not produce the blue color, although in these 
cases the blue of the chlorine will be very Hkely to blend itself 
with the color produced by the base. The chloride of copper 
communicates an intense blue to the flame, when fused on the 
platinum wire. If the heat be continued until the chlorine 
is driven off, then the greenish hue of the oxide of copper will 
be discerned. 

(b.) Lead. — Metallic lead communicates to the flame a pale 
blue color. The oxide reacts in the same manner. The lead- 
salts, whose acids do not interfere with the color, impart also 
a fine blue to the flame, either in the platina forceps, or the 
crooked wire. 

(c.) Bromide of Copper. — This salt colors the flame of a 
bluish-green color, but when the bromine is driven off, then we 
have the green of the oxide of copper. 

{d.) Antimony. — This metal imparts a blue color to the 
blowpipe flame, but if the metal is in too small a quantity, 
then the color is a brilliant white. If antimony is fused on 
charcoal, the fused metal gives a blue color. The white subli- 
mate v>'hich surrounds the fused metal, being subjected to the 
flame of oxidation, disappears from the charcoal with a 
bluish-green color. 

(c.) Selenium. — If fused in the flame of oxidation, it imparts 
to the flame a deep blue color. The incrustation upon char- 
coal gives to the flame the same rich color. 

(/.) Arsenic. — The arseniates and metallic arsenic itself 
impart to the blowpipe flame a fine blue color, provided that 
there is no other body present wiiich may have a tendency to 
color the flame with its characteristic line. The sublimate of 
arsenious acid which surrounds the assay, will give the same 
blue flame, when dissipated by the oxidation flame. The 
platinum forceps will answer for the exhibition of the color of 
[irsenic, even though the salts be arsen'ates, whose bases possess 
the property of imparting their peculiar color to the flane, 
such as the arseniate of lime 

Initiatoet Analysis. 65 


(a.) Ammonia. — The salts of ammonia, when heated before 
tlie blowpipe, and just upon the point of disappearing, impart 
to the flame a feeble though dark green color. This color, 
however, can only be discerned in a dark room. 

(b.) Boradc Add. — If any one of the borates is mixed with 
two parts of a flux composed of one part of pulverized fluor- 
spar, and four and a half parts of bisulphate of potash, and 
after being melted, is put upon the coil of a platinum wire, 
and held at the point of the blue flame, soon after fusion takes 
place a dark green color is discerned, but it is not of long 
duration. The above process is that recommended by Dr.- 
Turner. The green color of the borates may be readily seen 
by dipping them, previously moistened with sulphuric acid, 
into the upper part of the blue flame, when the color can 
be readily discerned. If soda be present, then the rich green 
of the boracic acid is marred by the yellow of the soda. Borax, 
or the biborate of soda (NaO, 2BO3) may be used for this 
latter reaction, but if it be moistened with sulphuric acid, the 
green of the boracic acid can then be seen. If the borates, 
or minerals which contain boracic acid, are fused on charcoal 
with carbonate of potash, then moistened with sulphuric acid 
and alcohol, then the bright green of the boracic acid is pro- 
duced, even if the mineral contains but a minute portion of 
the boracic acid. 

(c.) Copper. Nearly all the ores of copper and its salts, 
give a bright green color to the blowpipe flame. Metallic 
copper likewise colors the flame green, being first oxidized. 
If iodine, chlorine, and bromine are present, the flame is con- 
siderably modified, but the former at least intensifies the color. 
Many ores containing copper also color the flame green, but 
the internal portion is of a bright blue color if the compound 
contains lead, the latter color being due to the lead. Tho 
native sulphide and carbonate of copper should be moistened 

GO The B l o w p i r e . 

with sulplinric acid, while the former shoiikl be previously 
roasted. If hydrochloric acid is used for moistening the salts, 
then the rich green given by that moistened with the sulphuric 
acid is changed to a blue, being thus modified by the chlorine 
of the acid. Silicates containing copper, if heated in the flame 
in the platinum forceps, impart a rich green color to the outer 
flame. In fact, if any substance containing copper be sub- 
mitted to the blowpipe flame, it will tinge it green, provided 
there be no other substance present to impart its own color 
to the flame, and thus modify or mar that of the copper. 

(d.) Tellurium. — If the flame of reduction is directed upon 
the oxide of tellurium placed upon charcoal, a green color is 
imparted to it. If the telluric acid be placed upon platinum 
wire in the reduction flame, the oxidation flame is colored 
green. Or if the sublimate be dissipated by the flame of 
oxidation, it gives a green color. If selenium be present, the 
green color is changed to a blue. 

(e.) Zinc. — The oxide of zinc, when strongly heated, gives a 
blue flame. This is especially the case in the reducing flame. 
The flame is a small one, however, and not very characteristic, 
as with certain preparations of zinc the blue color is changed 
to a bright white. The soluble salts of zinc give no blue color. 

(/.) Baryta. — The soluble salts of baryta, moistened, and 
then submitted to the reduction flame, produce a green color. 
The salt should be moistened, when the color will be strongly 
marked in the outer flame. The insoluble salts do not produce 
so vivid a color as the soluble salts, and they are brighter when 
they have previously been moistened. The carbonate does 
not give a strong color, but the acetate does, so long as it is not 
allowed to turn to a carbonate. The chloride, when fused on 
the platinum wire, in the point of the reduction flame, imparts 
a fine green color to the oxidation flame. This tint changes 
finally to a faint du'ty green color. The sulj^hate of baryta 
colors the flame green when heated at the point of the reduc- 
tion flame. But neither the sulphate, carbonate, nor, in fact, 
o> V other salt of barvta, a-ives such a fine screen color as the 

Initiatory Analysis. 67 

chloride. The presence of lime does interfere with the reac- 
tion of baryta, but still does not destroy its color. 

(g.) Phosphoric Add. — The phosphates give a green color 
to the oxidation flame, especially when they are moistened 
with sulphuric acid. This is best shown with the platinum 
forceps. The green of phosphoric, or the phosphates, is much 
less intense than that of the borates or boracic acid, but yet the 
reaction is a* certain one, and is susceptible of considerable 
delicacy, either with the forceps, or still better upon platinum 
wire. Sulphuric acid is a great aid to the derelopment 
of the color, especially if other salts be present which would 
be liable to hide the color of the phosphoric acid. In this 
reaction with phosphates, the water should be expelled from 
them previous to melting them with sulphuric acid. They 
should likewise be pulverized. Should soda be present it will 
only exhibit its pecuhar color after the phosphoric acid shall 
have been expelled ; therefore, the green color of the phos- 
phoric acid should be looked for immediately upon submitting 
the phosphate to heat. 

(A.) Molyhdic Acid. — If this acid or the oxide of molybde- 
num be exposed upon a platinum wire to the point of the 
reduction flame, a bright green color is communicated to the 
flame of oxidation. Take a small piece of the native sulphide 
of molybdenum, and expose it in the platinum tongs to the 
flame referred to above, when the green color characteristic of 
this metal will be exhibited. 

(i.) Telluric Acid. — If the flame of reduction is directed 
upon a small piece of the oxide of tellurium placed upon char- 
coal, a bright green color is produced. Or if telluric acid be 
submitted to the reduction flame upon the loop of a platinum 
wire, it communicates to the outer flame the bright green of 
tellurium. If the sublimate found upon the charcoal in the 
first experiment be submitted to the blowpipe flame, the green 
color of tellurium is produced while the sublimate is volatilized. 
If selenium be present the green color is changed to a deep 
blue one 

C3 T n E B L o w r I p K. 

1). YELLOW. 

The salts of soda all give a bright yellow color when heated 
in the platinum loop in the reduction flame. This color is 
very persistent, and will destroy the color of almost any other 
substance. Every mineral of which soda is a constituent, 
give this bright orange-yellow reaction. Even the silicate of 
soda itself imparts to the flame of oxidation the characteristic 
yellow of soda. 

E. RED. 

(a.) Strontia. — Moisten a small piece of the chloride of 
strontium, put it in the platinum forceps and submit it to the 
flame of reduction, when the outer flame wdll become colored 
of an intense red. If the salt of strontia should be a soluble 
one, the reaction is of a deeper color than if an insoluble salt 
is used, while the color is of a deeper crimson if the salt is 
moistened. If the salt be a soluble one, it should be moistened 
and dipped into the flame, while if it be an insoluble salt, it 
should be kept dry and exposed beyond the point of the flame. 
The carbonate of strontia should be moistened with hydro- 
chloric acid instead of water, by which its color similates that 
of the chloride of strontium when moistened with water. In 
consequence of the decided red color which strontia commu- 
nicates to flame, it is used by pyrotechnists for the purpose of 
making their "crimson fire." 

(J).) Lithia. — The color of the flame of lithia is slightly 
inclined to purple. The chloride, when placed in the platinum 
loop, gives to the outer flame a bright red color, sometimes 
with a slight tinge of purple. Potash does not prevent this 
reaction, although it may modify it to violet ; but the decided 
color of soda changes the red of lithia to an orange color. If 
much soda be present, the color of the lithia is lost entirely. 
The color of the chloride of lithium may be distinctly produced 
before the point cf the blue flame, and its durability may be 

Initiatory Analysis. G9 

the means of determining it from that of lithium, as the latter, 
under the same conditions, is quite evanescent. The minerals 
which contain liihia, frequently contain soda, and thus the lat- 
ter destroys the color of the former. 

(c.) Potash. — The salts of potash, if the acid does not inter- 
fere, give a purplish-red color before the blowpipe ; but as the 
color is more discernibly a purple, we have classed it under that 

{d.) Lime. — The color of the flame of lime does not greatly 
differ from that of strontia, with the exception that it is not so 
decided. Arragonite and calcareous spar, moistened with hydro- 
chloric acid, and tried as directed for strontia, produce a red 
light, not unlike that of strontia. The chloride of calcium gives 
a red tinge, but not nearly so decided as the chloride of strontium. 
The carbonate of lime will produce a yellowish flame for a while, 
until the carbonic acid is driven ofi*, when the red color of the 
lime may be discerned. 

If the borate or phosphate of lime be used, the green color 
of the acids predominates over the red of the lime. Baryta also 
destroys the red color of the lune, by mixing its green colpr 
with it. There is but one silicate of lime which colors the 
flame red, it is the variety termed tabular spar. 


In order to examine a substance in borax, the loop of the 
platinum wire should, after being thoroughly cleaned, and 
heated to redness, be quickly dipped into the powdered 
borax, and then quickly transferred to the flame of oxidation, 
and there fused. If the bead is not large enough to fill the 
loop of the wire, it must be subjected again to the same pro- 
cess. By examining the bead, both when hot and cold, by 
holding it up against the light, it can be soon ascertained whe- 
ther it is free from dirt by the transparency, or the want of it, of 
the bead. 

In order to make the examination of a substance, the bead 

70 T HE B L c W r I PE. 

should be melted and pressed against it, when enough will 
adhere to answer the purpose. This powder should tlien be 
fused in the oxidation flame until it mixes with, and is tho- 
roughly dissolved by the borax bead. 

The principal objects to be determined now are : the color of 
the borax bead, both when heated and when cooled ; also the 
rapidity with which the substance dissolves in the bead, and if 
any gas is eliminated. 

If the color of the bead is the object desired, the quantity of 
the substance employed must be very small, else the bead will 
be so deeply colored, as in some cases to appear almost opaque, 
as, for instance, in that of cobalt. Should this be the case, 
then, while the bead is still red hot, it should be pressed flat 
with the forceps ; or it may, while soft, be pulled out to a thin 
thread, whereby the color can be distinctly discovered. 

Some bodies, when heated in the borax bead, present a clear 
bead both while hot and cold ; but if the bead be heated 
with the intermittent flame, or in the flame of reduction, it 
becomes opalescent, opaque or milk-white. The alkaline earths 
are instances of this kind of reaction, also glucina oxide 
of cerium, tautalie and titanic acids, yttria and zircouia. 
But if a small portion of silica should be present, then the bead 
becomes clear. This is likewise the case with some silicates, 
provided there be not too large a quantity present, that is : over 
the quantity necessary to saturate the borax, for, in that case, 
the bead will be opaque when cool. 

If the bead be heated on charcoal, a small tube or cavity 
must be scooped out of the charcoal, the bead placed in it, and 
the flame of reduction played upon it. When the bead is per- 
fectly fused, it is taken up between the platinum forceps and 
pressed flat, so that the color may be the more readily discerned. 
This quick cooling also prevents the protoxides, if there be any 
present, from passing into a higher degree of oxidation. 

The bead should first be submitted to the oxidation flame, 
and any reaction carefully observed. Tiien the bead should be 
submitted to the flame of reduction. It must be observed that 

Initiatoey Analysis. T1 

the platinum forceps should not be used when there is danger 
of a metallic oxide being reduced, as in this case the metai 
would alloy with the platinum and spoil the forceps. In this 
case charcoal should be used for the support. If, however, 
there be oxides present which are not reduced by the borax, 
then the platinum loop may be used. Tin is frequently used 
for the purpose of enabhng the bead to acquire a color for an 
oxide in the reducing flame, by its affinity for oxygen. The 
oxide, thus being reduced to a lower degree of oxidation, 
imparts its peculiar tinge to the bead as it cools. 

The arsenides and sulphides, before being examined, should 
be roasted, and then heated with the borax bead. The arsenic 
of the former, it should be observed, will act on the glass tube 
in which the sublimation is proceeding, if the glass should 
contain lead. 

It should be recollected that earths, metallic oxides, and 
metalHc acids are soluble in borax, except those of the easily 
reducible metals, such as platinum or gold, or of mercury, which 
too readily vaporize. Also the metallic sulphides, after the 
sulphur has been driven off. Also the salts of metals, after 
their acids are driven off by heat. Also the nitrates and car- 
bonates, after their acids are driven off during the fusion. 
Also the salts of the halogens, such as the chlorides, iodides, 
bromides, etc., of the metals. Also the silicates, but with 
great tardiness. Also the phosphates and borates that fuse in 
the bead without suffering decomposition. The metallic sul- 
phides are insoluble in borax, and many of the metals in the 
pure state. 

There are many substances which give clear beads with 
borax both while hot and cold, but which, upon being heated 
with the intermittent oxidation flame, become enamelled and 
opaque. The intermittent flame may be readily attained, 
not by varying the force of the air from the mouth, but by 
raising and depressing the bead before the point of the steady 
oxidating flame. The addition of a little nitrate of potasli 
will often greatly facilitate the production of a color, as it 

72 T H E B L o w p I r E . 

oxidizes the metal. The hot bead should be pressed upon a 
small crystal of the nitrate, when the bead swells, intumesces 
and the color is manifested in the surface of the bead. 


Microcosmic salt is a better flux for many metallic oxides 
than borax, as the colors are exhibited in it with more strength 
and character. Microcosmic salt is the phosphate of soda and 
ammonia. When it is ignited it passes into the biphosphate 
of soda, the ammonia being driven off. This bij^hosphate of 
soda possesses an excess of phosphoric acid, and thus has 
the property of dissolving a great number of substances, in 
fact almost any one, with the exception of silica. If the 
substances treated with this salt consist of sulphides or arse- 
nides, the bead must be heated on charcoal. But if the 
substance experimented upon consists of earthly ingredients 
or metaUic oxides, the platinum wire is the best. If the latter 
is used a few additional turns should be given to the wire in 
consequence of the greater fluidity of the bead over that of 
borax. The microcosmic salt bead possesses the advantage 
over that of borax, that the colors of many substances are 
better discerned in it, and that it separates the acids, the more 
volatile ones being dissipated, while the fixed ones combine 
with a portion of the base equally with the phosphoric acid, 
or else do not combine at all, but float about in the bead, as 
is the case particularly with silicic acid. Many of the 
silicates give with borax a clear bead, while they form with 
microcosmic salt an opalescent one. 

It frequently happens, that if a metallic oxide will not give 
its peculiar color in one of the flames, that it will in the other, 
as the difiference in degree with which the metal is oxidized 
often determines the color. If the bead is heated in the re- 
ducing flame, it is well that it should be cooled rapidly to 
prevent a reoxidation. Eeduction is much facilitated by the 
employment of metallic tin, whereby the protoxide or the 

Initiatory Analpsis. 73 

reduced metal may be obtained ia a comparatively brief 

The following tables, taken from Plattner and Sberer, will 
present the reactions of the metallic oxides, and some of the 
metallic acids, in such a clear light, that the student cannot 
very easily be led astray, if he gives the least attention to them. 
It frequently happens that a tabular statement of reactions 
will impress facts upon the memory when long detailed descrip- 
tions will fail to do so. It is for this purpose that we subjoin 
the following excellent tables. 



1. Oxydizing flame. 1. Oxydizing flame. 

2. Reducing " 2, Reducing " 

The Blowpipe 

*3 ^ 




^ o — -tJ 

S -^ '>< CJ =? 

ti 2 =: c« = 

~ O — T •— O 
2 B ^3i? g 


^ O CO 

Oxide of Tin 
Telluric Acid 

















Oxide of 







Oxide of 

3 3 s 

Table I. A 




Oxide of Cerium with interm. flame opaque 

Oxide of Iron, yellovr 

Oxide of Uranium with interm. flame opaque 

Oxide of Silver in large proportion, with in- 
term. flame opaline. 

Vanadic Acid, yellow. 

Oxide of Nickel, reddish-brown. 
" " Manganese, red to violet. 














^ ^" 












When in large 

Otherwise co- 

Oxide of Nickel 
" " Manganese 
" " Didymium 





Titanic Acid, yellow 

Tungstic " " 

Molybdic " dark-yellow 

Oxide of Zinc, pale-yellow 
" " Cadmium, pale-yellow 
" " Lead, yellow 
" " Bismuth, orange 
" " Antimony, yellow 
" " Cerium, red 
*' . " Iron, dark-red 
*' " Uranium, red 
" ". Silver 

Vanadic Acid, yellow 

Oxide of Chromium, dark-red 




orange red, and 




The B l o w p i r 



►- c -2 

5^ = 




















r c5 OJ 

iX! <^ O cq cc t-^ 

03 cS 

I a a 

3 "5 o_^ 

^ eg g J c .« 
j^ csj O H^ P5 -< J2; 

o o 


. - ij X 


o s «i 

2 3 -g 

, o n « ^ -a ^ -S -73 

-^ s 

3 :5 o _ 

as N o 1^ « -< Jz; ^ 

1-5 S O t>-i Cs3 H O 



^ o o 
.2-3 3 

3 o 

Table I. A 


'I l"^ 

• "5 


§ th-7. 

^ ^ 2 o 


O S =2 S 

§ I 2.-2 

tC^ fl o 

c ^ o a 
o o o 

3 "tS o 

oQ tQ Q H^ w -<^ ;2; _2 

•73 ^ ^ 

3 -, 

•rr a. 

o - - :; 
O *S tJ "J 

.■§ § o 3 

.H a 


-s .. s^ 


2o S 

0.5rS O 

<1 ■;3 oj as 

IS - 

J t» 1^ "o '^ 

^ ^ " .2 





& « 2 2 ^^ 

eg f-i S rr I-* 
OC.5*§ 3 

=! .2 
O »- 


The Blow pip 

i ^ 

"fi J; IS 

r « S O 



r .2 rt <^ 

"in o 


03 — 


.-= -5 X o rt r 


c: o 

ei- = s e= 
o ^ o 

«2 "^ ^ ii* 

13 O c''^ 



w ts 

rt -S .= J2 -= i^ ± ^ s«^ 


..2 O^ 


Table I. B. 


rt o.H 

h5 52;P^ 


C3 fl 

rt Oh 
O O 

£ §^ 2 

fc^ ^n bO 

C3 C 3 




'3 - 

S 3 


TS 9 

nil ...-1i 

r3 ci, 

•-5 o 

'o 'p 



T HE B L O W I' I P E 

i g d 

«= fl ^ 















o 5^ c; 

r C3 O .- rt .X ^ .5 ci Q .- . 


J I 

^ -^ C c3 c .E^ ^ •-;: 

o 2 fcx; ^ i 

— -^ .i: — *^ 

c>-i s: H o 

o = ^ 

Wo ffl 





' =« _ .^ ^ ^*- ^ 

io^.3 Wee .S^o- 

' X rt i3 .S ^ -:= ^ .== ^ >; " 
O tt 02 hJ ;^ O kH N H O 

•5 .H >> ^^ S 
h:5 ^ « S i^ 02 




Table I 


.X ^ ?; CO 

O 3 

■& 3 

•3 " 

.2 -^ 


•s So 









1:3 <1 

^ 2 


►^ ^ Ei O 

<u 1=3 o c3 "7; ^ 
Pc cj t. -M .y -y 

HI 'o 'o 3 

® o.2-Ei- - 

,2'5 f=^^ 

OE-IF4 P=< 


3 ^ != 



"rf ^ 3 

— r2 

o '3 rd 

r-3 fcC^ 

S^ 3 




5 ۤ 

- 2 ^ S .2 c .2 :2 

oi S3 o h^ « <1 ;zi « 


o o, 
.2 S 




5 a^.2 § 
S ja g 3 .5 

3 « 



£L a; 

O *- 



The Blowpipe 




^ o £ c: o w -- 

C CS ^ C rt _, 


o ^-^ i^ I S c 
*"' "o ^-' 'P .^ -^ 5 

o "C o c o '-3 


O m c3 

- i ^ 

■^ o o 

w ^ ^ 

<^ 2 2 2 


^ -3 'd ^-73 
_r o o 

a o 
S o 
O G 

E? o =: 


-^ a 


^"o i ^ -^ ^ =^ 

- _ - - « £ 5 ^ S ^ 


-5 S?— '« 


^3 .^ yr; o c 



'?< s 

O 3 


o o o ^ 

-4J 'i rr-j 

•" IS t^ 02 

o — O 

g =* rf 

Table II. 


■ O i- 13 


=3 „ 

. "J "5 C3 _, u-J 

2;^ I o ^-3 

s 1:5 ^ 2 3 

g c o ';3 ^ 



o ^ 

CO +J 


_r o o e3 o "tf • 





o « 



bead is obtain 
hich, however, 
hyst-color may 
ght out by addin 
nitre. While 
is kept fused 
s and gives ott' b 
of gas. 


§ 2 



C* ci 


^ ,~ c3 ^ ;=: ^ c; -2 

i =* t^^ ^ ':f 2 

> 2 5 

c: 1^ -^S •" -- — .-, 


1^1 I ^^3o 

o o o -^ •;n •" -" 
O ^ .^ C ci c3 


« ^ 



3S vio- 
ces an 
to be 


ci o 

S ^^^'^ - 





O 'S 

tC-5 -^ >. fe .«2 C3 

ger a 

r?2 •« 
•p CO 

^ 2 

. A 
the oxi 
ich ho 


c ^ o 


s:s- i-'^'s c 

O ^ m 




«M _ 


C o 

O " 

Ci G> rj ' 

:2 s 






I] I. O W I' I P E . 














ryj ^ r-J 


ci 't; 

^ ^ c. 

% fcOE 


o o 

„ a o 




he glass 


and th 





.2 = 

•s.a 5 


f^ ci 


O r-. m 

O'^ tr. 

O i 

b c t» <i> ^ 
•J ^i^l t-^S-S ^ 

J: 7: *^ -^ •:3 :2' £ ^ .-^ ^ tc fe 
. o 

^g2a's = 

=^ C C M *^ 

_ ^ ^^.r- ;-. C M 

d f 2 S ° '-3 .2f rt .2 -6 ^ -S o 'a 

-^ = 


si to 

o >-:§ 

^ '3 o 

t> o 

" c to 
"3 "^ .5 

"^ m yr'n -^ 


00 S ?i 

?^ M i K ,: jj 


E .ti « o 

?^ P r -^ 3 


-"^^ . ei 


--^ ^ I-' 

.— 0—1 


> >- Kl 


^ ci 


-2 "^-5 

"^ -— 

r3 . - ci 

■£ 'T? -^ 

lOunt, da 
irm, and 
icn cold. 

r ^ 9 

C E 

•-: t» ^ 

=0 s-g 

CS JJ +j 

'fcb'3 2 

O c 


Table II. 


^ . , 

o ;. • :; -s .--^ '^'^ L 


1 Avii 

eh a 







a ^ r: ^ tooras 

.iis|.^|l^ig ■ 

^^ Wr^-rt H-S fcC-5 1 

t:^ jjoociic^^ 

C. p -iJ o jj .^ <^ ^jj 




>-'S "^ 

2 2 

^ o 




1 1 






n coo 


, the g 
lile ho 

^ u o 

S. ^ 9. 

c a, 



w rt 


.2 „,^ 



«^ f-i 5? 


:h o a 


X o & 

O « d 

i c^ 6 


' c3 

^ o 

o o a ^ 2 I ^ .3 "^ § 

2 -^^ 1-3 
^ - - ci o ::; « •-" ^ ^.^^ , 

tJ3 «' 



o ^ o 

G O 


^ V ci 

-t: O O ^ C — 

a O -a O =3 - 

-3 ^ =: ^ 

° ^ s ^ ^ 

S 2 S =^:5 £ • 
^ -^ fcc 9 -^ -^ -^ 

^ (^ -J ^ C o o 

-'S^^:£ ^ 

O -^ 


The B l w r I p 

O t^.TS ' O *» 


•r: o o £ -^^ O 








1 s . £ £ "l 



^^^a ^'^ 



" p: o .-. -^ ° 


a O S 3 o ^ 


<D O ei 





^ s|^ 




fc- 'p 







t>.2 „ 

o to 





'^ cs el 

^ O O =* 

jj 03 O "73 -^ 

fee O -^3 ^ 3 ^ 

ci r- ci t) C3 t^ 

.2 &J3 £ .5 '^ 

. ^ S =« c ^ 

! 1 1 :S .2 -i 

j o o ^ ^ a> 

B 3 

g 5 o ^ g 

3. O -u> '/>«>>■ 

-rs •" ^ o 

W Q > J3 

.2 G ^ > 

;=; -^ -^ 

§ s § 

O M 

<u O O o 

. ri2 CO 


05 -gg^ 



Table II 


1^ .1 

.3 '5 '^ 

a g i s a 

"Ts OQ ^ O . 

o'So-a'S g^ 
:o fcjoo.2 

d o 

O -73 3 

d o% 

_ ci d 
eS O ^ 

:2 d 2 

;^ § to 

« 2 =* S 

s^=3 i 

O 3 

o O d .3 

'^ i^i 

d J«^ J 

yellow tinge, while hot, 
which disappears on 
cooling, and when per- 
fectly saturated, becomes 

As with borax, but a 
larger addition of oxide, 
required to produce a 
yellow color in the warm 

metallic cadmium is vo- 
latilized and incrusts the 
charcoal with its char- 
acteristic deep yellow 

The plumbiferous glass 
spreads out on charcoal, 
becomes turbid, bubbles 
up, until the whole of 
the oxide is reduced, 
when it again becomes 
clear. It is, however, 
difficult to bring the lead 
together into a bead. 

,1 m a +=> ^ o JL 

S S ^ 3 ?^ « O 

•1 i^ g,.^ ^ S « 

O S <= 1'^ I S 

O-^StT S r; 5 ° 

^ fl> -- ^ d ^rt d 

a, «3 O ^ qa c3 w .d 

; ^ A «i^ d 

> O.S rQ OS 

o .^ 
O cj ^ 

M » o3 

<a ' 

P cj 

o rd c d 
t OS 3 <u 

S fcfituod 

O d d "^ 

^ .d .d u 

.tS o d 

aj -ji ° fcb 
d 12 °^ d 

^ »* 3 o 
I^ *^ o o 

■t^ OJ O o 

s t«^ d 


S ■S^:d 
-g =° ?^ o 

S 3 


12 Pi 


TuE Blowpipe. 



a a . 

O ;»■ 

fcDfl " 
S ® S 

2 1 .9 


S a-- 
H^ o 

fl s: ? o 

•-H o o g 





a ^ 

^ 1: 13 o 

f -» 00 " 

-r 5a -r fl- 

fcJG cS ? c3 







A glass containing but 
httle oxide undergoes no 
change. If much of the 
latter be present, a part 
may be reduced upon 

A glass becomes at 
first grey and turbid, 
then begins to effervesce, 
which action continues 
during the reduction of 










In small quantity dis- 
solves slowly into a 
clear colorless glass, 
which, when cold, re- 
mains clear, and cannot 
be rendered opaque with 
an intermittent flame. 
If a saturated bead, 
which has been allowed 
to cool, be reheated to 
incipient redness, it loses 
its rounded form and 
exhibits imperfect crys- 

Dissolves readily to a 
dear glass which with 
a small amount of the 
oxide is yellow, while 
warm, and becomes 


Table II. 


-C3 h. 

g o ^ § 

° I o^ 

o f o o 

o ? o o 

x» « is 

o -r; t- o 

9 ^ 

c3 S,15 

f- o fl — 

5^ O 02 0^2 

d ^ J Cn-d ^~ g g S 

=j ^ S 

rt 03 CC 

^ 3 £P 

O o .5 

^ ,1, d 
ej 'd -d 


» ^ M 

o s o 

.t^ q^ -^ £ o 

O =3 O 

r3 "3 ^ m ^ 

o o .g o d 

O C3 d 
.d rt 

S S ^^ 

O cc 

o o.2d^P2g=«'^ 


fi--lFII Sills 


o o 

fcC 1 

o -^ 
Zi T3 

^ O O 
tn P. 

o CI 

3 aT-a ^ ^ ^ :d 

«^-d ci O § 

tfl ^- ;r I S ° 

^ J O o O <y 


o "^ g -d^l o S 
rd X -s ^ <^ 'o =d 

« O ^ tC iJC C 33 


O 3 

. a 



The Blowpipe. 

-u "^^ 7; o ^ 

p 'B ri a '^ 
■^ a a - '- ^ 

5 «:2c§' 

2 S o g g 44 

O M « fc! o ^ -tJ 

-^ OS ^ o 'S •-' 

O o rt rt g 

X w " n 

D w O fci .S P 

fl c3^ c„ 

2.^^-3 1 Sis «oS_ 

O 5J O S ?^ 

O = . 52 

ci rt 

r <V^i^<^>-i;j f — ^o 


h cT.g ^ -3 

§ "" 2 o o 0:2 ^ 



a tx) >> ci 

ay O) ^ 
I « I 



5 "^ 


2 S 

:S 9 o 

tec-- i 0.-2 ^-^^og 

— ' • "*^ '^ Ti3 '^ w cr- 

o o ri ^ ti) 
•5 "5 "fcc o .9 

rt o rt rt t: "5 ^ 

a :3 o <K r^ ^ r^ 

o a o ^ c^ 

. rt S o 
I ^ o 


^j o — ' 



.9 ^^ 

D- fcb^ 

S =^ s 

O "o 73 -O 



O bO 
O 3 








As in borax. 

Both the oxide and the 
metal afford a yellowish 
glass, which, when con- 
taining much oxide be- 
comes opaline, exhibit- 
ing a yellow color by 
daylight and a red one 
by artificial light. 



On charcoal the argen- 
tiferous glass becomes at 
first grey from the re- 
duced metal, but after- 
vi'^ards, when the silver 
is collected into a bead, 
it becomes clear and co- 

As in the oxidizing 

The oxide is partly 
dissolved and partly re- 
duced. In small quan- 
tity, it colors the glass 
yellow while warm, the 
color disappearing on 
cooling. In larger quan- 
tity, the glass is yellow 
while warm, but during 
cooUng becomes paler to 
a certain point, and then 
again deeper. If re- 
heated slightly, the glass 
becomes opalescent. 

Are reduced without ' 
being dissolved. The re- 
duced metal, being in- 
fusible, cannot however 
be collected into a bead. 



17. Oxide of 


18. Oxide of 


19. Oxide of 

20. Oxide of 
Iridium, Ir^O'. 


T II K Blowpipe. 

Ah :5 

.S It ^.^-d^^.S 






o tr > " o ci 





-kJ O X 03 O -kJ -^ 

c3 a 







. • 

>^ 'I 









^ »3 



'Ji , 

• — ■ ^ 










.;5 o o 

12 -s p :h 3 ?^ 

c-t s5 


^ o ^ — "5 S 
> ^ o ^ (^2 


c t- 
9 fcc 

'-H "5 " ^ ^ 

Table II 


*2 O 

•S S S o f^ S S 

o s :i o .5 «- ^ 

~ o ^ - 'tJ o ^ 

S -j^ w o ^ ° 

i^ m 

, O C 

o ii 

a 11:0 ."S»^ w 

C A, i; O O e« 

._ jj O *J ^ O 

ei ce C -p CL, 

2"^ J o S'5 
® fcC =^ g ;§ "^ 
ro .3 o ci ^ «t-< 

§ .2 a ^ '-' 

000 c^ -^ 

t-i - o o 

a t« o ^3 c 
2 o os; -3 2 
:;3 -t; "^ -s c3 .s 

.2 'C c 

to a 

d, is 





•§ '^ 2 






ryf 2 ";:; 

t» cfc _5 

S > 2 fcp 

I'?':! S 

. 2 fcb 

^ c a 






M ^^ 

.ti & >-.^ 

4. «« i J. 





* C £ y 


. g =^^ 


a CO — 

or brow 

bead a 


ider an 




•^ "^ C3 = 


— ~ C 


>-.XS ^ ci 


g :j-:2 o o o 

a ^ ^ 

2 •- £ bc-^ 


t5 2 ^' -2 ^ 

--5^--=^ ^ 


^ o2 ^-5 

M S t3 r-. 


^.-S ^ ■> 3 

-!<-i •" -^ 

d f- ^'^ 

2 d c -a 





d '^ 





•5 . 


,- ^ 



s s 



-a d 


^ ^ 









S 8 


« ^ S = fcJb 

r ^ S o .S 

,S '^ :S il § 





■ n 




The Blowpipe. 



> t^ o 
! O -S 

J 5 ca 
to S 

^ CO d 

O » J- 

^ g - g 2 ^ o ^ 
s =^ o 9 ^ :^ -^ a 

o fl ci a 

■^ ^ fl Oi 
t- O tH 

O cc • — 

O P 'O ^ 
I Cl( C; cS c3 

_^ o tc 6 - o 

rs ^ ^ to 

J- a, o S 
P § 5^ cj 

r, "^ r^ '^ 

CJ -^ S . — ! 

- ^ ' ^c o 3 

«^|"l iiil § 

^^t S g 2 ^ g g ■ 

.'ri '^ 

oj T3 to 

S d O 

.a i 

u ^ 
o S 



|i o 


^ 3 

3 O "S 

3 " 


ci _;:; 

o ^ 

XJ > rt 

=: ^3 


tt ;S 


•K o 


Table II 


With a sufficient dose 
of the acid, the bead 
becomes brown with a 
violet tinge. This reac- 
tion is readily obtained 
upon charcoal. Sulphate 
of iron renders the bead 

On charcoal the satu- 
rated glass becomes at 
first dull, but as soon as 
the reduced antimony is 
volatilized, it again be- 
comes clear. With tin, 
the glass is at fii'st ren- 
dered grey by the r"- 
duced antimony, but \>y 
continued blowing is 
restored to clearness. 
Even when the glass 
contains but little oxide, 
tin produces this reae 

Dissolves even in large 
quantity to a colorless 


Dissolves with ebulli- 
tion to a glass of a pale 
yellow color while warm. 


A bead containing suf- 
ficient of the acid to 
render it spontaneously 
opaque on cooling, has 
a greyish color. 

A bead, that has only 
been treated for a short 
time in the oxidizing 
flame, Avhen submitted 
to the reducing flame 
becomes grey and turbid 
from the reduced anti- 
mony. This soon vola- 
tilizes and tlie glass again 
becomes clear. The ad- 
dition of tin renders the 
glass ash-grey or black, 
according to the amount 
of oxide it contains. 



Even when in large 
proportion, dissolves to 
a clear glass, Avhich is 
yellow when Avarm, but 
almost entirely loses its 
color on cooling. On 
charcoal, the antimo- 
nious acid may be al- 
most expelled, so that 
tin produces no further 


28. Oxide of 


The Blowpipe. 

, the 
ir to 
on be 

e3 -a d 



W3 ? M 


^2 § o^^ 9-^ 2 



=S "^ .^ 3 .5 5 h= ^ d 



^2 ^^ ? .-^ S 



^ o 



o a 



- Si 



^3 tn o 

eS 2 S 


.1 ,-,-S 




P) ^ .2 








sent in small quantity, 
the glass undergoes lio 
change. With a larger 
proportion, the glass is 
deep yellow while warm, 
and yellowish-brown 
when cold. This reac- 
tion takes place upon 
charcoal, with a small 
quantity of the acid. Tin 
produces a dark colora- 
tion, when the acid is 
not present in too great 
a quantity. 

The glass, Avhich has 
been treated in the oxi- 
dizing flame, becomes, 
when the acid is not 
present in too large a 
quantity, brown, and 




Dissolves readily to a 
clear colorless glass. In 
large proportion it ren- 
ders the borax yellow, 
Avhile warm, and with a 
still greater addition the 
bead may be made opa- 
que with an intermittent 
flame. If more be then 
added, this reaction takes 
^placc spontaneously. 

Dissolves readily and 
in large quantity. When 
but little is dissolved, the 
glass is yellow while hot 
and colorless when cold. 



Table II. 


fr< • o !/: —■ • 

S X ^ -^ .= o 

75 og^H S 

•s ^ .0 ^-^ 


,-^3 S ^ ^ s 


r- S -C ^ -- 

iant grcei 
lat produc 
of chromi 
tion on c 
isely sinii 
lers the cc 
t darker. 


:= '^^ 'i^ g 2 rt 

Msit ^sl 

1 1 M ,> ra « . 

M s- c3 -* 

«-Q^ ?: ?^ 

g^J'^ S 1 




vhen wai 
es nearl 
, the gla: 
:, and wh 
autiful g; 



jj "^ r- - ^^ ,^ 

" t^ « _ c; '- 

n large quantity, 
ly opaque. In a 
flame, oxide of 
[enum is formed 
is visible in tlie 
glass in the form 
k flakes. If the 
ppear opaque, it 
be flattened with 







*: ^ fccs - ^ § ^ -^ 




^ ^ 




g ^ 8.5 
fl ^ d o 


t- S o 

•s 2 <^ 



o +-> 

.a ph-s 

'-' .2 =^ 3 o 2 

O 2 Si M ^ O 
O rt *^ 2 

.2 ra a o .3 . 
fcjD ^ -^ S ^ ••;3 





'0 ~ 






pm -5 


.= ^ ^ o 


S! fe S 







.s ^'^ .1 




rt O ci O 

qq o TS a 

'- ^ d >..J. 


g =: ©-:;: :::: 





ei - >-> 




«3 p '-t: 
2i S S a 


> o « 


± -s -s ""^ 9 » 







fcjf^ O fcij^ 

^ a d ^- ■ o 
■?^ "^ c s S — 










.- rt ii Jii c? 

O O Oi "^3 o 



^ ri 
W -' 

2 -5 ^ " ^ &^ 

. O P t. r- O 'O 

=e § « ^- ^"S o 
c ? S f I ^ .S 

! -43 ?= 




^ 5 





' d 

9 % 




^ r-) 







o-r o 3 a 

O ^ O "TS TS 

O 2i 


.2 b 



CJ ... 


I N I T I A T O P. Y A N A L Y S I S . 103 


The carbonate of soda is pulverized and then kneaded to a 
paste with water; the substance to be examined, in line powder, 
is also mixed with it. A small portion of this paste is placed 
on the charcoal, and gradually heated until the moisture is 
expelled, when the heat is brought to the fusion of the bead, 
or as high as it can be raised. Several phenomena will take 
place, which must be closely observed. Notice whether the 
substance fuses with the bead, and if so, whether there is intu- 
mescence or not. Or, whether the substance undergoes reduc- 
tion ; or, whether neither of these reactions takes place, and, on 
the contrary, the soda sinks into the charcoal, leaving the sub- 
stance intact upon its surface. If intumescence takes place, the 
presence of either tartaric acid, molybdic acid, silicic, or tung- 
stic acid, is indicated. The silicic acid will fuse into a bead, 
which becomes clear when it is cold. Titanic acid will fuse 
into the bead, but may be easily distinguished from the silicic 
acid by the bead remaining opaque when cold, 

Strontia and baryta will flow into the charcoal, but lime will 
not. The molybdic and tungstic acids combine with the soda, 
forming the respective salts. These salts are absorbed by 
the charcoal. If too great a quantity of soda is used, the bead 
will be quite likely to become opaque upon cooling, while, if 
too small a quantity of soda is used, a portion of the substance 
will remain undissolved. These can be ec|ually avoided by 
either the addition of soda, or the substance experimented 
upon, as may be required. 

As silica and titanic acid are the only two substances that 
produce a clear bead, the student, if he gets a clear bead, may 
almost conclude that he is experimenting with silica, titanic 
acid being a rare substance. When soda is heated with 
silica, a slight effervescence will be the first phenomenon no- 
ticed. This is the escape of the carbonic acid of the carbonate 
of soda, while the silicic acid takes its place, forming a glass 

104: The Blowpipe. 

with the soda. As titanic acid will not act in the same man- 
ner as silica, it can be easily distinguished by its bead not 
being perfectly }3ellucid. If the bead with which silica is 
fused should be tinted of a hyacinth or yellow color, this may 
be attributed to the presence of a small quantity of sulphur or 
a sulphate, and this sometimes happens from the fact of the 
flux containing sulphate of soda. The following metals, 
when exposed with carbonate of soda to the reducing flame, 
are wholly or partially reduced, viz. the oxides of all the 
noble metals, the oxides and acids of tungsten, molybdenum, 
arsenic, antimony, mercury, copper, tellurium, zinc, lead, bis- 
muth, tin, cadmium, iron, nickel, and cobalt. Mercury and 
arsenic, as soon as they are reduced, are dissipated, while 
tellurium, bismuth, lead, antimony, cadmium, and zinc, are only 
partially Yolatilized, and, therefore, form sublimates on the 
charcoal. Those metals which are difficult of reduction should 
be fused with oxalate of potassa, instead of the carbonate of 
soda. The carbonic oxide formed from the combustion of the 
acid of this salt is Yery efficient in the reduction of these metals. 
Carbonate of soda is very efficient for the detection of minute 
quantities of manganese. The mixture of the carbonate of 
soda with a small addition of nitrate of potassa, and the 
mineral containing manganese, must be fused on platinum 
foil. The fused mass, when cooled, presents a fine blue color. 

Part III. 



I. The substance reduced to a powder is placed •upon 
charcoal and heated with the blowpipe flame. 

1. It volatilizes or hums. 

2. It yields an alliaceous odor. 

a. Minerals having metallic lustre. 

b. Minerals without metallic lustre. 

3. It yields the odor of decayed horse-radish, 

4. It gives off fumes of antimony. 

a. Minerals having metallic lustre. 

a. Giving witli carbonate of soda upon charcoal and in 
tlie reduction flame a bead of metallic lead. 

p. Giving with soda upon charcoal in reduction flame a 
bead of silver. 

y. Giving neither silver nor lead when treated with soda 
upon charcoal under the reduction flame. 

b. Substances without metallic lustre. 

lOG T H E B L O W P I P K . 

5. It forms upon the charcoal a v:hitish coating, which 
tinges the reduction flame green, 

(If pulverized, and heated witli strong sulphuric acid, colors 
the flame red.) 

a. Minerals of a tin-white color. 

b. Minerals having lead or steel gray color. 

6. The residue has an alkaline reaction, 

a. Substances soluble in water. 

a. Yielding water when heated in a glass tube. 
/3. Giving no water when so heated. 

b. Substances insoluble or nearly so in water. 

a. Effervescing when treated with hydrochloric acid. 
/?. Fusing with the carbonate of soda, and yielding a 

sulphurous mass. 
7. Giving neither of these reactions. 

7. The residue is magnetic. 

a. Minerals with metallic lustre. 

b. Minerals without metallic lustre. 

IT. The substance mixed witb the carbonate of soda is 
placed upon charcoal and heated in the reduction 

1. The fused mass gives the sulphur reaction upon 
silver. There is also a metallic globule. 

a. Anhydrous substances. 

b. Hydrates. 

2. The fused onass gives the sulphur reaction^ hut no 
metallic globule. 

a. Hydrates. 

b. Anhydrous substances. 

3. The fused mass does not afford the sulphur reaction^ 
but yields a metallic head. 

a. The o-lobule is bismuth. 

The Blowpipe. lOT 

b. The globule is lead. 

c. The globule is silver. 

d. The globule is copper. 

e. The globule is some other metal. 

III. The borax bead is violet in the exterior flame. 

1. Minerals loith metallic lustre. 

2. Minerals icithout metallic lustre. 

lY. The pulverized substance, heated with cobalt solu- 
tion, exhibits a green color. 

Y. The substance dissolves completely in hydrochloric 

1. It is fusible before the bloicinjje. 

a. Yields water when treated in the glass tube. 

b. Yields no water in the glass tube. 

2. It is infusihle before the blov^pipe. 

a. Hydrates. 

b. Anhydrous substances. 

YI. The substance is partially dissolved in hydrochloric 
acid, forming a gelatinous mass. 

1. Fusible before the bloiopipe. 

a. Hydrates. 

b. Anhydrous substances. 

2. Infusible before the blowpipe, 

a. Hydrates. 

b. Anhydrous bodies. 

YII. The substance dissolves in hydroeliloric acid, leav- 
ing a residue of silica, but not in a gelatinous 

1. Hydrates. 

2. Anhydrous bodies. 

108 T H E B L o Av p I p p: . 

yill. The substance is insoluble in liydrocljloric acid, 
and yields in the microcosmic salt bead a skeleton 
of silica. 

1. It is fusible before the blowpipe. 

2. It is ill fusible. 

IX. Minerals belonging to neither of the preceding 




Sulpliiir — Arsenic — Selenium — Tellurium — Anti- 
mony — Selensulphur — Eealgar (arsenic di-oxide) — Orpi- 
ment (arsenic tri-oxide) — Yalentinite (antimonic tri- 
oxide) — Senarmontite (antimonic tri-oxide) — Kermes 
(oxide and sulphide of antimony) — Antimonocher 
(hydrated pentoxide of antimony)— Stiblite (antimonic 
oxides) — Stibine (antimonic tri-sulphide) — Salammoniac 
(ammonium chloride) — Muscagnite (ammonium sul- 
phate) — Cinnabar (mercuric sulphide) — Calomel (mer- 
curous chloride) — Sylvine (potassium chloride) — Cotun- 
nite (lead chloride) — Tiemannite (mercuric selenide) — 

Yielding an alliaceous odor when heated on charcoal ; 
— Ai'setiio ; it volatilizes without liquefying ; gives in the 
glass tube a dark gray metallic ring ; in the platinum pin- 
cers, colors the flame pale blue ; metallic lustre, tin white, 
dull or black. Arsenite sublimes without fusing in little 
white crystals ; in the platinum pincers colors the flame 
blue ; soluble in hot water ; has a vitreous lustre. 

DifFasing an odor of sulphurous acid when heated : 
Sulphur, burns with a blue flame ; in the closed tube 

110 The Bloavpii'e. 

melts and volatilizes ; H (hardness*) 1.5 ; brittle. — Cinnor 
hew volatilizes in the closed tube, yielding a black subli- 
mate, and if previous!}'- mixed with soda or potassium 
cyanide, will deposit little globules of mercury ; red ; 11 

Yielding an alliaceous and sulphurous odor when heated 
on charcoal : Realgar, melts in the closed tube, and sub- 
limes, giving a transparent red deposit ; red ; becomes , 
dark brown if treated with potash. — Orpiment melts and 
volatilizes in the closed tube, yielding a deep yellow sub- 
limate ; yellow ; dissolves in potash solution. 

Releasing fumes of antimony when heated on charcoal : 
Native Antimony fuses to a spherical metallic globule, but 
becomes coated in cooling with small crystals of antimonic 
oxide. The metal is bluish white, lustrous, with a specific 

" The scale of hardness is as follows : 

1. Talc, light green variety, easily scratched by the thumb nail. 
3. Selenite (gypsum), not easily scratched by the nail ; does not 
scratch copper. 

3. Calcite, transparent. Scratches and is scratched by a coj^per 

4. Fluor spar, crystallized. Not scratched by a copper coin ; 
does not scratch glass. 

5. Apatite, transparent. Scratches glass with difficulty; easily 
scratched by the knife. * 

6. Orthoclase, white, cleavable felspar. Scratches glass easily; 
not easily scratched by the knife. 

7. Quartz, transparent. Not scratched by the knife. 

8. Topaz. 

9. Sapphire. 

10. Diamond. 

With a knife, piece of glass, and a copper coin, the hardness ia 
soon determined, and a clue to its name and value obtained. 

In applying the test for hardness considerable care is requisite ; 
when determining the relative hardness of two substances, each 
should be applied to the other. Minerals of equal hardness scratch 
each other. 

T H 3:: J> L O W P I P E . 11 ! 

gravity of G.T. — Valentinite, transparent, pearly lustre, 
white, and is easily sublimed in the closed tube. — &enar- 
7)iontite is distinguished from the preceding only by a dif- 
ference in crystalline form. — Kermes alFords a globule of 
antimony when heated alone upon charcoal, and releases 
water when heated in the closed tube ; H, 1.5. — Stiblite 
yields a globule of antimony upon charcoal, but no water 
in the closed tube ; H. = 5.5. 

Yielding antimony fumes, also the odor of sulphurous 
acid, when heated upon charcoal; Kermes gives in the 
closed tube a sublimate, at first white, then orange ; hard- 
ness 1.5, streak,* bright red. Stibine fuses easily in the 
tube, and gives, if heated strongly, a brown sublimate ; 
metallic lustre ; lead gray color. H. ^ 2. 

Diffusing the odor of decayed horse-radish when 
heated on charcoal : Selenium — Tlemannite ; deposits 
mercury on the sides of the tube if heated with carbonate 
of soda. 

Yielding the horse-radish odor with sulphurous acid 
when heated on charcoal, Selensulplmr. 

Tellurium ; easily fused on coal, and burns with a 
greenish flame; tin-white, with a metallic lustre. — Sal- 
ammoniciG evaporates without fusing ; is easily soluble in 
water; if heated with potash releases ammonia. — Mascag- 
nite fuses, boils, and volatilizes, and deposits water in the 
closed tube ; treated with soda, gives a sulphur reaction. — 
Sylvine fuses and volatilizes on the charcoal, coloring .the 
flame a pale violet ; soluble in water. — Cotunnite gives on 
the coal a greenish yellow coating ; treated with soda a 
globule of lead is obtained ; slightly soluble in water. — 
Calomel gives with carbonate of soda in the closed tube 
little globules cf mercury; grayish white; insoluble in 
water. — Graphite fused on platinum with saltpetre yields 

* The streak is obtained by marking with the mineral upon a 
white surface, preferably the surface of unglazed porcelain. 

112 The Blowpipe. 

carbon dioxide, which converts the reagent into potassic 
carbonate ; at a high heat it burns, leaving only a slight 


a. Minerals with metallic lustre. 

jSTative Arsenic — Dufrenoysite (copper and arsenic 
sulphides) — Arsenical Antimony — Sclervelase (lead and 
arsenic sulphides) — Panabase (antimony and arsenic 
sulphides) — Polybasite (lead, copper, antimony, and 
arsenic sulphides) — Smaltine (cobalt and arsenic) — 
Lencopyrite (iron and arsenic) — Cobaltine (cobalt, ar- 
senic and sulphur) — Mccolite (nickel and arsenic) — 
Pammelsbergite (nickel, arsenic with sm^all amount of 
bismuth and copper) — Disomose (nickel, arsenic, and 
sulphur) — Mispickel (iron, arsenic and sulphur) — Geo- 
cronite (lead, antimony and arsenic sulphides). 

Arsenic and Antimony as native metals belong with 
this group only when the assay consists of too large frag- 
ments, or when on account of impurities in the former the 
volatihzation is not complete. 

a- Yielding hydrogen sulphide when treated with hy- 
drochloric acid: Dufrenoysite j the borax bead indicates 
copper ; fuses easily on charcoal giving arsenic and sul- 
phurous odors, leaving finally ahead of copper. — Panahase 
yields on coal the fumes of antimony ; sometimes the cop- 
per reaction is obtained in the borax bead ; many speci- 
mens yield also a zinc coating on charcoal. 

Borax bead blue : Cobaltine reduces before the blow- 
pipe and leaves a magnetic bead. 

Borax bead is of a brownish tint in the oxidation flame • 
Disomose decrepitates on charcoal. 

The Blowpipe. 113 

Borax bead is green in the reduction and reddish brown 
in the oxidation flame : Mhpiekel reduces on charcoal 
and yields a magnetic globule. 

With carbonate of soda yielding a bead of lead : 
Sclerodase, very brittle: H. 2.5. — Geocronite gives de- 
cided antimony reactions, and more feebly the cojDper re- 

With carbonate of soda upon charcoal yielding a silver 
bead : Polyhasite gives the antimony coating, aid reduces 
to a dark gray grain having a metallic lustre. 

/?. Yielding no hydrogen sulphide by treatment with 
hydrochloric acid : Smaltine yields a blue borax bead, 
and reduces easily on the charcoal to a dark gray brittle 
globule, which may be taken up by the magnet. — Leucopy- 
rite gives upon the charcoal a magnetic mass ; gives also 
a dark gray streak. — JSficcoUte gives a red brown color to 
the borax bead in the oxidation flame ; reduces on coal to a 
magnetic globule ; has a copper-red color, a metallic lustre, 
and gives a dark brown streak. — Rammelshergite gives 
reactions similar to Niccolite ; reduces readily ; remains 
incandescent some time after being removed from the flame ; 
has a tin-white color, and gives a gray streak. 

h. Minerals loitJiout metalliG lustre. 

Kottigite (nickel, cobalt, zinc -and arsenic) — Scoro- 
dite (iron and copper, arsenates) — Sjmplesite (hydrated 
arsenate of iron) — Pitticite (iron arsenate and sulphate) 
— Pharmacosiderite (hydrated arsenates of iron) — Phar- 
macolite (copper arsenate) — Chondrarsenite (manganese, 
arsenate) — Erythrine (cobalt arsenate) — JSTickelochre 
(nickel arsenate) — Pyrargyrite (silver antimony and arsenic 
sulphides) — Erinite (copper arsenate) — Chalkophyllite 
(copper arsenates) — Liroconite (copper and aluminum ar- 
senates) — Euchroite (copper arsenates) — Olivenite (cop- 

114 T H E B L o w r I P E . 

per arsenate and tliospliatej — Tyrulite (copper, arsenate 
and calcium carbonate). 

Giving ill borax bead the copper reaction, and coloring 
the flarne blue if previously wet with hydrochloric 
acid; — JErinite gives on the charcoal a copper bead; 
yields water in the closed tube ; H.=5.5; transparent near 
the edges. — Clialkopliylllte decrepitates violently and re- 
duces to a brittle globule; emerald green color; clear 
green streak; H.=2. — TyroUte breaks into small frag- 
ments before the blowpipe, then blackens and fuses to a 
steel gray bead; H.=l.o ; color green, streak green and 
effervesces with acids. — Euchroite reduces before the blow- 
pipe, first to copper arsenite, then to metallic copper ; H.= 
4.5 ; has a vitreous lustre. — Liroconite fuses on the char- 
coal and reduces to a scoriaceous mass ; becomes cobalt blue 
wlien ligbtly heated. — OUvenite fuses in the platinum pin- 
cers and recrystallizes upon cooling ; gives a little water 
in the closed tube ; and reduces upon the charcoal to a 
brown scoria ; streak varies from brown to olive green. 

Kottigite gives upon the coal a coating of oxide of 
zinc ; and affords a green color if treated with cobalt so- 
lution and heated strongly. • 

Erythrine gives a blue borax bead ; the mineral has a 
pinkish tint. 

J^ichelochre gives a brownish bead with borax in the 
outer flame; color greenish yellow. 

Fyrargyrite gives readily a globule of silver upon the 
charcoal if mixed with soda. 

Ghondrarsenite gives a violet color to the borax bead 
if brought into the outer flame. 

Becoming magnetic when reduced upon charcoal : 8cor- 
odite reduces easily to a scoriaceous mass; H. = 3. 5 or 4; 
streak greenish white. — Symplesite ; infusible; H.=5; 
Btreak varies from white to blue. — Fitticite reduced some- 

The Blowpipe. 115 

what on charcoal; if plunged into water becomes trans- 
parent; H.^2.5; streak yellow. — Pharmacosiderite fuses 
on coal; in the closed tube gives off" water and turns red; 
streak yellow. 

Pharmacolite reduces on charcoal to a transparent 
bead ; the bead sometimes tinged with blue by reason of 
the presence of a little cobalt; colors the flame slightly 



Clausthalite (lead selenide) Berzellianite (copper sel- 
enide) — Tieinannite (niercurj selenide) — l^aumannite 
(silver selenide) — Zorgite (copper and lead selenide). 

Clausthalite gives with soda upon charcoal a bead of 
lead ; without soda, scales off, gives off fumes and yields 
a coating on the coal of red, yellow and white. — Berzel- 
lianite gives in the exterior flame a greenish blue borax 
bead; in the inner flame a reddish brown bead ; upon the 
charcoal a malleable gray globule is obtained. — Tieman- 
nite yields mercury in the closed tube, if heated with 
soda. H.==2.5; brittle. — N'aumannite, ^vith. soda on char- 
coal gives a bead of silver; in the outer flame on charcoal 
it fuses quietly; in the inner flame it boils and becomes 
solid and incandescent. — Zorgite fuses very easily and 
reduces to a gray mass Avith a metallic lustre; in the bo- 
rax bead exhibits the copper reaction; gives upon charcoal 
with soda a bead of lead. 



a. Minerals having metallw lustre. 

I a globule of lead when heated in the redi 
al with carbonate of soda. 

Zinkenite — Jamesonite — Plagionite — Geocronite (all 

a. Giving a globule of lead when heated in the reduction flame 
upon charcoal with carbonate of soda. 

116 The Blowpipe. 

lead and antimony sulphides) — Bournonite (copper, lead 
and antimony sulphides) — Tetrahedrite (copper, lead, 
silver and antimony sulphides) — Freieslebenite (silver, 
lead and antimony sulphides) — Kobellite (lead, iron, bis- 
muth and antiinony sulphides). 

The copper reaction is obtained with : — JBoiirnonite : 
gives in the closed tube a sublimate of sulphur ; reduces 
easily upon the coal to scori£B ; brittle; H.=2.5 ; streak 
dark gray. — Tetrahedriie decrepitates before the blowpipe; 
fuses on ciiarcoal and becomes gray scoriae; H.=3 — 4. 

Zmkenite decrepitates and reduces easily ; H.=3.5. 

J^lagionite ; hrhile ; H.=2.5 ; decrepitates before the 

Jamesonite and Geocronite are easily distinguished 
from the above by blowpipe alone. 

KohelUte colors the borax bead brown in the outer 
flame ; gives a bead of lead which is brittle in consequence 
of the presence of bismuth. 

Fieieslehenite yields a globule of lead which contains 

/3. Gives a globule of silver when heated in the reduction flame 
on charcoal with soda. 

Dyscrasite (silver and antimony) — Miargyrite, Psatu- 
rose, Pyrargyrite (silver and antimony sulphides) — 
Polybasite (silver, copper and antimony sulphides). 

Yielding sulphurous when heated on charcoal: 
Polybasite borax bead indicates copper ; decrepitates, and 
reduces readily H.==2.5; Sp. Gr. 6.5. — Tetrahedrite, the 
borax bead indicates copper ; decrepitates and fuses easi- 
ly; contains a little silver. — Miargyrite; steel . gray to 
black in color ; soft to the touch ; streak red. — Psatiirose y 
H.=2.o; black. 

The Blowpipe. ' 117 

Dlscrasite reduces easily on charcoal, but unlike the 
preceding yields no sulphurous acid vapors. 

7. Giving on charcoal with soda neither lead nor silver. 

Native Antimony — Ullmanite (nickel, antimony and 
sulphur) — Stibine (antimony sulphide) — Breithanptite 
(nickel and antimony) — Chalcostibite (copper and anti- 
mony sulphides). 

Volatilizing completely after long heating: Native 
Antimony — Stihine. 

Giving the sulphur reaction: Ullmanite ; borax bead 
in the outer flame is reddish brown ; H.=5; brittle streak 
gray. Chalcostibite gives the copper reaction, decrepitates 
before the blowpipe and reduces easily ; H.=3.5 ; color 
varying from lead color to very dark gray ; streak black. 

Giving no sulphur reaction: Breitliaiiptite ; borax 
bead gives nickel reaction ; reduces with difficulty ; H.== 
5 ; streak brownish red. 

h. Minerals loithoiit metallic Instre. 

Stiblite (antimony oxides) — Antimony Ochre (anti- 
monic oxide) — Jamesonite — Boulangerite (lead and anti- 
mony sulphides) — Kermes (antimony sulphide) — Pyrar- 
gyrite (silver and antimony sulphide) — Kameite (calcium 
and antimony oxides). 

Giving the sulphur reaction: Kermes fuses easily and 
colors the flame green : H.=1.5 ; adamantine lustre: color 
varying from brownish red to cherry red; streak red or 
brown. — Jamesonite gives with soda a globule of lead ; 
fuses easily ; H.=2 ; gray; streak dark gray and of a metallic 
lustre. — Boulangerite yields upon charcoal with soda a 
globule of lead. H.=3. — Pyrargyrite when reduced upon 

118 The Blowpipe. 

charcoal with soda a bead of silver; alone on the coal it 
scales off and reduces to a black globule streak red. 

StiblUe yields a white coating upon the coal without 
reducing; reduced with soda, it yields a bead of antimony; 
yellow; H.=5.5. 

Antimony Ochre fuses easily before the blowpipe and 
with considerable intumescence ; gives water in the closed 
tube ; H.=l. 

Honieite alone upon the charcoal yields black scoriae ; 
with soda a globule of antimony is obtained ; H.=6 or 7 ; 
color Yellowish. 


[The powdered substance treated with strong- sulphuric acid and 
heated, colors the flame red.] 

a. Minerals of a tin-white color. 

Native Tellurium. — Argental Tellnrium Altaite (lead 
and tellurium). 

N'ative Telluriuni volatilizes completely, giving an odor 
similar to selenium. H.=2. 

Argental Tellurium gives if reduced with soda a silver 
bead ; H=2.5 ; malleable. 

Altaite yields with soda a bead of lead ; alone it reduces 
easily upon the coal, giving a yellowish coating. 

1). Minerals of a steel or lead gray color. 

Tetradvmite (bismuth, tellurium and sulphur) — Sjl- 
vanite (gold, silver and tellurium) — Nagyagite (lead and 
tellurium, and sometimes also gold and sulphur). 

Giving the sulphur reaction: Tetradymlte gives with 

T H E B L O W P I P E . 119 

soda in the reduction flame a globule of bismuth ; yields 
also an odor resembling selenium; — Hagyagite gives when 
reduced with soda a globule of lead ; streak gray. 

Sylvanlte gives no sulphur reaction; reduces on the 
charcoal to a gray metallic grain ; after long heating a 
malleable globule is obtained. 


a. Easily sohible in loater. 

a. Yielding water when heated in tlie closed tube. 

Mirabilite (sodium sulpliate) — Thermonatrite — Mat- 
ron — Trona (all sodium carbonates) — Epsomite (magnesi- 
um sulphate) — Kalinite (potash alum) — ^lendigite (soda 
alum) — Tschermigite (ammonia alum) — Borax (sodium 
borate) — Loweite (magnesium and sodium sulphate) — 
Carnallite (magnesium and potassium chlorides) — Bous- 
singanltite (ammonium, magnesium and iron sulphate) — 
Picromerite (magnesium and potassium sulphates). 

Giving efiervescence with hydrochloric acid : Ti'ona^ 
H.=2.5 ; fuses in the closed tube yielding much water. 
— iVci^rd^i H.=1.5; fuses in the tube yielding much water; 
effloresces in the air. Thermonatrite does not fuse, and 
releases but little water. 

Giving with soda the sulphur reaction : Alums giving 
after strong heating the blue reaction with cobalt solution. 
— Potash Alum ; intumesces and tinges the flame a feeble 
violet. — Soda Alum fuses, intumesces and colors the flame 
yellow, especially if previously wet with hydrochloric 
acid. — Ammonia Alum, if heated with caustic potash, 
yields the odor of ammonia gas. — Epsomi(e gives after 
calcination a flesh or rather skin color with the cobalt 

120 The Blowpipe. 

solution; fuses easily and with intumescence ; H.=2 or 2.5. 
— Mlrdbilite gives no reaction with cobalt solution ; fuses 
easily and is absorbed by the charcoal ; colors the flame 
yellow; H.=1.5. — Loioeite decrepitates in jiarting with 
water and then fuses quietly ; 11=2.5 or 3. JBoussingaul- 
tlte contains but little water ; gives with potash the am- 
monia odor. JPlcromerite gives the flesh tint with cobalt 
solution ; colors the flame violet, and precipitates silver 
nitrate by reason of containing some potassium chloride. 

Borax intumesces strongly and then fuses, afibrding 
an occasional green tint to the flame. Carnallite, very 
hygrometric ; colors the flame slightly violet ; gives also 
a slight whitish coating on the charcoal ; H=2 or 2.5. 

a. Giving no water in tlie closed tube. 

ISTitre (potassium nitrate) — Soda I^itre — Nitrocalcite 
(calcium nitrate) — Arcanite (potassium sulphate) — Thes- 
iardite (sodium sulphate) — Common Salt. 

Deflagrating on charcoal : Nltre^ coloring the flame 
violet: &oda Kitre^ coloring the flame yellow : Nitrocal- 
cite^ coloring the flame red and dejlagrating feebly. 

Giving^ with soda the reaction of sulphur : Arcanite 
decrepitates and fuses ; gives feeble potash reaction in the 
flame. Thenardite reduces only at a high temperature, 
coloring the flame yellow. 

Common Salt yields easily to the blowpipe flame, color- 
ing it yellow. 

h. Insoliible in water. 

a. EflPervesces when treated witli lijdrocliloric acid. 

Witlierite (barium carbonate) — Calcspar (calcium 
carbonate)— A ragonite (calcium carbonate) — Strontianite 

The Blowpipe. 121 

(strontium carbonate) — Gaylussite (sodium and calcium 
carbonate) — Dolomite (calcium and magnesium carbonate) 
— Magnesite (magnesium carbonate) — Barvtocalcite (bar- 
ium and calcium carbonate) — Bromlite (barium and cal- 
cium carbonate) — Xemalite or Brucite (magnesium oxide 
hjdrated) — Hydromagnesite (magnesium carbonate) 
— Smitlisonite (zinc carbonate). 

Giving water iu the closed tube : Gaylussite colors 
tlie flame yellow; brittle; decrepitates, and fuses to an 
opaque globule. ILjdromagnesite gives with cobalt nitrate 
the flesh tint indicative of magnesium ; does not fuse nor 
color the flame. 11=3 2\'emallte ; infusible; does not 
color the flame ; gives the flesh tint with cobalt solution ; 
silky lustre. H=2. 

Coloring the flame green if previously wet with hydro- 
chloric acid j Witherite fuses easily f o a white bead having 
an enameled surface. Barytocalcite colors the flame yel- 
lowish green, and becomes opaque white with a greenish 
glazed covering. Bromlite presents the reactions of 
Barytocalcite ; some specimens, however, afibrd the crim- 
son color of strontium in the blowpipe flame. 

Coloring the flame red when moistened with hydro- 
chloric acid ; Strontianite. 

Coloring the flame orange-red when wet with hydro- 
chloric acid ; Calcspar y infusible, and becomes highly 
luminous before the blowpipe; H=3. — Aragonite is infusi- 
ble; in the closed tube falls to powder; H=3.5 or 4. — Dolo- 
mite eflervesces but slightly with acid ; heated in a powder- 
ed state on platinum foil, the particles remain separate, 
whereas calcite would unite in a mass ; 11=3.5. — Smitli- 
sonite gives upon charcoal a white coating of zinc oxide. 

Giving no color to the flame: Magnesite ; infusible, 
but yields the flesh tint when treate 1 with the cobalt 

122 The Blowpipe. 

/3, Giving the sulphur reaction -with the carbonate of soda. 

Anhydrite (calcium snlpliate) — Selenite (calcium sul- 
phate with water) — Barytite (barium sulphate) — Celes- 
tine (strontium sulphate) — Polyhalite (potassium, calcium 
and magnesium sulphates) — Glauberite (calcium and 
sodium sulj)hates) — Alunite (potassium and aluminum 
sulphates) — Kieserite (magnesium sulphate) — Aluminite 
and Alunogen (aluminum sulphates). 

Yielding water in the closed tube : Selenite becomes 
opaque in the flame ; decrepitates, scales off and then fuses 
to an enameled bead ; H=2 ; gives considerable water in 
the closed tube. JPoIyhalite gives but little Avater in the 
tube j fuses easily on the charcoal to a brownish bead ; 
and dissolves in water leaving but little residue; .H= 35. 
Aluminite ; infusible, but reduces to a j)owder. Aluno- 
gen intumesces at first and then subsides into an infusible 
mass. H=2. Kieserite dissolves easily in water. 

Calcined on charcoal and wet with hydrochloric acid 
gives a purple color to the flame ; Celestine decrepitates 
and fuses to an enameled bead. 

Calcined and wet with hydrochloric acid gives a reddish 
yellow color to the flame ; Karstenite decrepitates slightly 
and fuses to an enameled Vvdiite bead. 

Calcined and wet with hydrochloric acid, colors the 
flame yellow ; Glauberite, partially soluble in water ; has 
a slightly salt taste ; decrepitates before the blowpipe. 

y. Producing neither of the above reactions. 

Borocalcite (calcium borate) — Pharmacolite (calcium 
arsenate) — Haidingerite (calcium arsenate) — Brucite 
(magnesium hydrate) — Boracite (magnesium borate) — 
Fluorspar (calcium fluoride) — Cryolite (aluminum and 
sodium fluorides) — Chiolite (aluminum and sodium fluo 

The Blowpipe. 123 

rides) — Katrolite (sodium liydrate and al u ni I n inn si I icate) 
— Talc (magnesium silicate) — Spinel (magnesium and 
aluminum oxides). 

Flame presenting the pale green of boric acid : Boro- 

calcite after the volatilization of the boric acid gives the 

red color due to calcium ; gives water in the closed tube. 

Boracitc fuses with intumescence to a b*ead which in 

cooling becomes encrusted with crystals. 

Giving garlic odor when heated on charcoal : Phar- 
macolite fuses to an enameled white bead. Saidbtgerite 
behaves much like the preceding; it contains less water 
and yields less under the blowpipe. 

Brucite is infusible ; becomes opaque white when heat- 
ed ; H=1.5 ; pearly lustre, gives a flesh-colored reaction 
with cobalt. — Spinel gives a blue reaction with cobalt 

When treated with sulphuric acid, yielding fluorhydric 
acid: Cryolite decrepitates, and then fuses to a transpa- 
rent bead which becomes opaque upon cooling ; colors the 
flame yellow; H=2.5. Chiolite presents the same reac- 
tions as cryolite; H=4. Fluorspar decrepitates and 
fuses to a transparent bead; colors the flame red. H=4. 

JSfatroUte gives in the microcosmic salt bead a skeleton 
of silica; small fragments become opaque when first heated, 
but recover transj)arency at a higher temperature. H=5.5. 

Talc gives a skeleton of silica in the microcosmic salt 
bead; and also gives the magnesia reaction with cobalt 
solution ; scales off" under the blowpipe ; H:^l. 


a. Minerals having metalliG lustre. 

Hematite (iron peroxide) — Magnetic Iron Ore — Crai- 
tonite (iron and titanium) — Limonite (ferric hydrate)^ — 

124 T HE Blo wriPE. 

Chromite (iron and chromium oxides) — Wolframite (iron, 
manganese and tungsten oxides) — Franldinite (iron, man- 
ganese and zinc oxides). 

Limonite yields water in the closed tube; dark brown 
color; streak brownish yellow ; H=5.5. 

Hematite ; infusible; 11=6; yields no water ; streak red. 

Magnetite ; anhydrous ; fuses with difficulty ; magnetic 
before calcination ; streak black ; H=6. 

Chromite colors the borax bead green ; H=6 ; streak 

Craitonite gives a violet bead with microcosmic salt 
in the reduction flame ; streak black. 

'Wolframite gives a blood red bead with the micro- 
cosmic salt in reduction flame; gives a green mass it 
treated with sodium carbonate and nitre on platinum foil; 
streak, red brown to black. 

Franklinite gives upon charcoal a whitish coating of 
zinc oxide; gives manganese reaction in the borax bead; 
streak, brownish red. 

l. Minerals witJiout metallic lustre. 

Siderite (iron, carbonate) — Limonite — Ked Hematite 
— Gothite (ferric hydrate) — Botryogen (ferrous and ferric 
sulphates) — Yoltaite (iron and potassium sulphates) — 
Copiapite (ferric sulphate) — Chloropal (iron silicate) — • 
Coquimbite (iron sulphate). 

Giving water in the closed tube: Limonite ; H=5.5 ; 
vitreous or adamantine lustre ; streak, brownish yellow. 
— Gothite yields less water ; H=4.o ; brittle; thin lami- 
noB are translucent ; streak, brownish yellow. — Botryogen 
intumesces before the blowpipe ; gives the sulphur reac- 
tion; vitreous lustre ; streak, ochre yellow. — Yoltaite forms 

The Blowpipe. 125 

an earthy mass before the blowpipe ; gives the sulphur 
reaction j partially soluble in water ; streak, greenish gray ; 
opaque and black. — Coquimhite is white, blue or green ; 
gives the sulphur reaction; streak, wliite. — Copiapite gives 
sulphur reaction; transparent; yellow and with pearly 
lustre. — Chloropal gives no sulphur reaction; yields a 
silica skeleton in salt of phosphorus bead; color, pale dull 
yellow; unctuous to the touch; becomes reddish before the 

Siderite gives no water. 



a. Anhydrous todies. 

Eismutbinite (bismuth sulphide) — Tetradjmite (bis- 
muth sulphide and bismuth tellurite) — Galena (lead sul- 
phide) — Anglesite (lead sulphate) — Bismutite (bismuth 
carbonate, bismuth sulphate) — Leadhillite (lead sulphate, 
lead carbonate) — Lanarkite (lead, sulphate and carbonate) 
Aikinite (lead, bismuth and copper sulphides) — Millerite 
(nickel sulphide) — Lin^eite (cobalt sulphide)— Argyrose 
(silver sulphide) — Cuproplumbite (copper and lead sul- 
phide) — Stromeyerite (copper and silver sulphide) — Stan- 
nite (iron, tin and copper sulphides) — Chalcocite (copper 
sulphide) — Covellite (copper sulphide) — Bornite (iron and 
copper sulphides) — Chalcopyrite (iron and copper sul- 

12G The Blowpipe. 

pliide) — Pentlandite (iron and nickel sulphides) — Costil- 
lite (copper and zinc sulphides). 

The metallic globule is bismuth : Jjismutlte effervesces 
with hydrochloric acid; exhibits a vitreous or dull sur- 
face; color greenish or yellowish; streak, white: H=3.5. 
• — Tetradymite gives the odor which distinguishes tellurium ; 
metallic lustre; silver white color; streak, black ; H=1.5. 
— Bismuthmite fuses easily and forms projections on the 
bead through spirting; metallic lustre; steel gray to pale 
yellow; streak, dull ; H=2.5. — Aikinite gives the copper 
reaction ; metallic lustre ; steel gray color ; streak, dark 

The metallic globule is lead : Galena / decrepitates in 
the closed tube, giving a sublimate of sul|)hur ; metallic 
lustre, lead gray color; streak, dark gray; H=2. — Angle- 
site decrepitates before the blowpipe ; lustre somewhat ada- 
mantine, often greasy looking; color, white, gray or brown- ' 
ish; streak, gray; H=3. — Leadhillite intumesces before 
the blowpipe and becomes yellow, but turns white upon 
cooling ; yields easily a lead bead ; transparent ; yellowish; 
streak, white ; H=2.5; effervesces with hydrochloric acid. 
— Lanarkite fuses to a white globule ; gives readily an ef- 
fervescence with hydrochloric acid ; transparent ; greenish 
white color; streak, white; H=2. — Cuproplurnoite gives 
the copper reaction in the bead ; the metallic globule is 
not as malleable as the ordinary lead globules ; fuses with 
effervescence ; color, lead gray ; streak, black. 

The metallic globule is nickel; Millerite yields a mass 
which may be taken up by the magnet; metallic lustre; 
color, yellow. — Pentlandite gives the iron reactions ; has a 
metallic lustre and the color of bronze ; H=4. 

The metallic globule is copper : Chalcocite fuses upon 
the charcoal to a globule with numerous projections ; in 
the reducino- flame it becomes covered with an infusible 

The B l o w pipe. 127 

coating; metallic lustre; streak, black; 11=2.5 or 3. — Co- 
vellite behaves like clialcocite ; greasy lustre ; H=1.5. — 
Bornite fuses to a magnetic steel gray globule ; copper 
colored or iridescent; gives reactions of iron; streak, black. 
— Chalcopyrite decrepitates and then fuses to a magnetic 
mass; metallic lustre; yellowish wliite color; streak, green- 
ish black ; gives the iron reactions. — •CastllUte boils and fu- 
ses; gives upon the coal a coating of zinc oxide ; color, lead 
gray ; streak, reddish brown. — Stromeyerite fuses easily to 
a gray globule with a metallic lustre ; silver may be found 
by the wet process ; metallic lustre ; lead gray color and 
dull streak. — Stannite fuses to a brittle, gray globule ; gives 
the iron reaction ; with soda upon coal, yields small 
beads of tin; metallic lustre; color varying from, steel gray 
to pale yellovf ; streak, black. — Tlie sulphur combinations 
C)f copper give j^roraptly upon calcination with soda a 
clean bead of copper. 

The metallic globule is silver : Argentlte fuses with 
boiling ; streak, brilliant ; H=2.o. 

Linnceite fuses on charcoal ; colors the borax bead blue; 
has a tin-white color ; 11=5.5. 

h. innerals containing ivater. 

Linarite (lead sulphate and copper hydrate) — Langite 
— Bieberite — Clialcanthite (all copper sulphates) — Bro- 
chantite (copper sulphate and copper hydrate). 

Giving the copper reaction : Linarite gives a yellow 
coating upon charcoal, fusing easily ; adamantine lustre; 
ultramarine blue color; stueak, bi"ight blue. — Chalcan- 
thite whitens before the flame, intumesces, reduces and then 
blackens ; vitreous lustre ; skv blue color ; streak, bbiish 
white. — JJrochantite fuses readily; has a vitreous lustre; 
transparent green color and gives a green streak.— Xa;?^^/?/^ 

128 The Blowpipe. 

differs from brocliantite in its greater amount of water. — 
JBieherite colors the borax bead blue ; silky or vitreous lus- 
tre ; rose colored ; streak, reddish white. 


a. Mmerals containing water. 

Aluminite and Alunogen (both aluminum sulphates) — 
Johannite (uranium sulphates) — Goslarite (zinc sulphate) 
— Pissophanite (aluminum and iron sulphates) ^ — Cacoxene 
(aluminumj iron, silica and phosphoric acid). 

Becoming blue when treated with cobalt solution : 
Aluminite ; infasible before the blowpipe ; H=5. — Aluno- 
gen intumesces and subsides into an infusible mass; readily 
soluble in water. — Fissophanite ; blue tint in cobalt reac- 
tion not very decisive; borax bead exhibits the iron reac- 
tion; blackens before the blowpipe. 

Becoming green when treated Avith cobalt solution : 
Goslarite gives on charcoal a coating, yellow when hot, 
white when cold; intumesces on the coal and then becomes 
infusible and white. 

Johannite before the blowpipe flame becomes a black 
mass and rather soft; colors the borax bead green ; color, 
green ; streak, pale green. 

Cacoxene decrepitates and yields in the oxidation flame 
a magnetic scoriae ; the borax bead exhibits the iron reac- 
tion ; yellow ; streak, yellow. 

h. Anhydrous idinerals. 

Pyrrhotine — Pyrite — Marcasite (all iron sulphides) — 
Alabandite (manganese sulphide)- — Hauerite (manganese 
sulphide — Blende (zinc sulphide) — Greenockite (cad- 

The Blowpipe. 129 

miiim sulphide) — Molybdenite (inoljbdeniim sulphide) — 
Christophite (iron and zinc sulphides) — Bornite — Chalco- 
pyrite (iron and copper sulphides) — Chalcocite and Co- 
vellite (both copper sulphides) — Castillite (copper and zinc 
sulphides) — Stannite (iron, tin and copper sulphides). 

The borax bead presents the iron reaction : Pyrite fuses 
in the reduction flame to a black magnetic globule ; yellow 
color ; streak, gray ; E[=8 to 6.5. — 31arcaslte behaves like 
pyrite ; yields a sulphurous odor when heated on charcoal ; 
greenish yellow color; streak, greenish black ; H=6 to 6.5. 
— Fyrrhotite fuses to a black magnetic mass ; is magnetic 
slightly before heating ; bronze color ; streak, blackisli 
gray ; H=3.5 to 4.5. 

Borax bead violet in oxidation flarne: Alahandite fuses 
only on the edges ; color, brown to black ; streak, green ; 
11=3.5. — Hauerite in the closed tube gives a sulphur sub- 
limate and a green residue; color, brownish red; streak, 
brownish red ; 11=4. 

Giving a coating on charcoal yellow when hot and white 
when cold : Blende decrepitates before the blowpipe but 
does not fuse ; streak varies from yellowish white to brown ; 
11=3.5. — Christophite gives the iron reactions ; color, vel- 
vety black ; streak, blackish brown ; 11=5. 

Greenocklte yields only brown scoriie ; streak varies 
from orange yellow to brick red. 

Molyhdenite ; the microcosmic salt bead is green in the 
reduction flame ; becomes brown when heated in the closed 
tube ; infusible. 

Giving a globule of copper when fused with soda and 
borax ; also giving a brown borax bead in the reduction 
flame if tin-foil be added : Chcdoocite fuses on coal to a 
globule which forms projections by spirting ; metallic lus- 
tre ; streak, black ; 11=2.5 to 3. — Covellite is like the pre- 
ceding, except it has a greasy lustre. — Bornite fuses to a 

130 Thk Blowpipk. 

steel giTiV magnetic globule ; copper red, or iridescent ; 
streak, black; gives the iron reactions. — Chalcopyrite de- 
crepitates and fuses to a gray magnetic mass ; metallic lus- 
tre ; pale yellow or iridescent ; streak, greenish black ; 
gives iron reaction. — CastiUite fuses with bubbling ; yields 
the zinc coating on coal ; color, lead gray ; streak, reddish 
brown. — Stannite fuses to a brittle globule ; gives iron re- 
actions ; and with carbonate of soda on the coal yields 
small beads of tin ; metallic lustre ; 11^4.5. 


a. lite gJoljide is lismuth. 

]S"atiYe Bismuth — Bismite (bismuth oxide) — Bismntite 
(bismuth carbonate)— Euljtite (bismuth silicate). 

Bismutli fuses readily, has a metallic lustre, silver white 
color with a slight ruddy tinge ; brittle ; H=2.5. — Bismite 
reduces easil}^ to a metallic globule ; easily crushed ; color 
yellow or yellowish white ; streak, yellov/ish white ; H^l.o. 
— IMsmutite reduces easily ; in the closed tube it turns 
brown and yields water ; eflervesces with acids ; has a vit- 
reous lustre; color, white. — Eulytite fuses readily; the 
microcosmic salt bead presents a skeleton of silica ; ada- 
mantine lustre; brown; streak, yellow to gray ; H=4.5. 

h. The metallic globule is lead. 

Xative Lead — Plattnerite (lead oxide) — Minium (lead 
oxide) — Matlockite (lead, oxide and chloride) — Mendipite 
(lead oxide and lead chloride) — Pyromorphite (lead phos- 
phate and lead chloride) — Cerusite (lead carbonate) — 
Phosgenite (lead carbonate and lead chloride) — Stolzite 
(lead tnngstate)— Vrulfenite (lead molybdate) — Yanadinite 

The Blowpipe. 131 

(lead chloride and lead vanadate) — Dechenite (lead vana- 
date — Crocoite (lead clironiate) — ■ Melancliroite (lead 
chromate) — Eusynchite (lead and zinc vanadates) — Yan- 
qnelinite (copper and lead clironiates). 

Giving the oxygen reaction : Plattnerite ; color, iron 
black ; streak, brown. — Minium • color, red ; streak, 

Eifervescing with acids : Cerusite decrepitates before 
the blowpipe ; takes an orange colored coating and finally 
reduces to a bead of lead ; 11=3. — Phosgenite fuses easily 
in the exterior liame to a globule which is pale yellow 
upon cooling ; reduces easily, yielding acid vapors. 

The borax bead becomes green in the interior and yel- 
low in the exterior flame: Vanadinite decrepitates strong- 
ly ; fuses to a globule ; emits sparks and reduces to metal- 
lic lead. — Dechenite fuses easily; streak, yellowish. — Eu- 
syncMte yields a zinc coating upon charcoal ; streak, pale 

The borax bead in either flame presents the green of the. 
chromium reaction: d'ocoite decrepitates, fuses easily and 
spreads over the coal ; adamantine lustre ; orange streak. 
— Melancliroite decrepitates slightly and reduces to a dark 
colored mass ; streak, brick red. — J'^anquelinite gives the 
copper reaction ; intumesces slightly upon coal, then boils 
strongly and becomes a dark gray globule ; streak, yellow- 
ish green. — Pyromoiyhite decrepitates in the glass tube ; 
fuses upon charcoal in the exterior flame, to a bead whicli 
upon cooling exhibits a crystalline surface, giving at the 
same time a thin white C(>ating of lead chloride; colors the 
flame blue; yields sometimes an odor of arsendc. 

The microcosmic salt bead in the reduction flame pre- 
sents the blue of tungsten : Stohile fuses on charcoal to a 
crystalline globule with metallic lustre ; streak, gray. 

The microcosmic salt bead presents the green color of 

132 The Blow pi pi:. 

molybcleiium : Wulfen Ite decrepitates and tlien fuses ; streak, 

Mendipite upon charcoal diifuses the odor of hydrochlo- 
ric acid ; reduces to metallic lead. 

3IatIocJxite decrepitates and then fuses to a yellowish 
gray globule ; the presence of chlorine in this and the pre- 
ceding example is best detected by the vret process. 

JSTative Lead^ easily fusible, gives npon charcoal an 
abundant yellow coatius; ; metallic lustre ; streak, shining; 

c. The metallic globule is silver. 

Kative Silver — Cerargyrite (silver chloride) — Bromy- 
rite (silver bromide) ^ — lodyrite (silver iodide) — Amalgam 
(silver and mercury). 

Silver fuses before the blowpipe ; fibrous fracture ; 
streak, brilliant. 

Cerargyrite fuses in a candle flame ; yields before the 
blowpipe a brownish bead ; transparent ; conchoidal frac- 
ture ; streak, white ; 11=1.5. 

Uromyrite ; the powder is bright green but becomes 
rapidly gray. 

lodyrite fuses to a silver globule, coloring the flame 
purple ; streak, brilliant ; PI=1. 

Amalgam in the glass tube gives sublimate of mercury ; 
on charcoal the mercury evaporates and the silver remains; 

']. The globule is cojyper, or there is a. cupreous scori-a 

jSTative Copper — Cuprite (copj^er sub-oxide) — ]\Ielac- 
onite (copper oxide) — Atacamite (copper chloride and 
copper hydrate) — Libethenite — Thrombolite and Pseudo- 

The Blowpipe. 133 

Malachite (copper phosphates and hydrates) — Mahichite 
and Azurite (copper carbonate and hydrate) — Dioptase 
and Chrjsocolla (copper sihcate and hydrate) — Crednerite 
(copper and manganese oxides) — Yolborthite (copper and 
calcium vanadate). 

Are anhydrous : Kative Copper; granular fractm-e; 
copper red color ; metallic lustre ; brilliant streak ; H=2.5. 
— Cuprite first blackens and then reduces to a globule of 
copper; carmine red color; streak, brownish red; H=3.5. 
-^Melaconite reduces easily to metallic copper ; color, steel 
gray, blue or brownish black; streak, dull; H==3. — Cred- 
?ier^^e, .infusible and yields tlie mauganese reaction ; H=4.5. 

Are hydrates : — infusible before the blowpipe : Dioptase 
assumes a blackish color in the exterior flame and red in the 
interior flame; streak, green; the microcosmic salt bead 
exhibits a skeleton of silica ; 11=5. — ChrysocoUa first 
blackens and then turns brown before the blowpipe ; streak, 
greenish white ; shows silica in the salt of phosphorus 
bead; H=2.5. 

Efiervescing Y>^ith acids : Malachite fuses to a globule 
and reduces at a high temperature; color, green; streak, 
green. — Azurite fuses and reduces before the blowpipe; 
color, blue ; streak, blue. 

Atacamite colors the flame bluish green; H=4. 

Libetlienite fuses on charcoal to a steel gray globule ; 
greasy or vitreous lustre ; color, green ; streak, greenish 
yellow ; H=3.o. 

JPseudo-malachite fuses to a steel gray globule ; vitreous 
lustre; green color; streak, green; 11=4.5. 

Thromholite fuses to a black globule, and then reduces 
to copper, after long blowing; 11=3, or 4. 

Yolhortfdte fuses on charcoal to a black scoria ; yields 
water in the closed tube and turns black; color, olive green; 
streak, yellow ; 11=3.5. 

134 T II ]; 15 Lo \v pi p e 

e. The globule is soihe other metal, 

Asbolite (cobalt and manganese oxides) — Zaratite 
(nieliel carbonate) — Xative Gold. 

Asho^.ite colors the borax bead blue ; gives a green mass 
when fused on platinum-foil with nitre and sodium carbon- 
ate. — Zaratite colors the borax bead in the outer flame red- 
dish brown ; effervesces with acids. — Gold fuses with diffi- 
culty ; high specific gravity, yellow color; H=2.5. 



Pyrolusite — Haussmanite — Braunite — Marceline — 
(all manganese oxides, the latter one contains silica also) 
• — Acerdase (manganese oxide and hydrate) — Psilomelane 
(manganese and barium hydrates) — Wolframite (iron and 
manganese tungstate). 

Releasing chlorine when heated with sulphuric acid and 
salt : Pyrolusite yields much chlorine ; streak, black; H=2. 
■ — Haussmanite gives but little chlorine ; streak, brownisli; 
H=5.5. — J^raunite gives but little chlorine; streak, black; 
H=G.5. — Marceline resembles braunite. — Acerdase yields 
but little chlorine ; gives w^ater in the closed tube ; streak, 
brown; H^=4, — Psilomelane disengages but little ciilorine, 
and yields a little water in the closed tube; lustre, not vr-i-y 
metallic ; streak, brilliant brown or black; dissolves easily 
in hydrochloric acid and then gives a precipitate witli sul- 
phuric acid. 

Di^eneao-iiio- no chlorine : JVolfrcnniie fuses easilv to a 

T 11 ]•: B L o w p I p E . 135 

magnetic globule covered with crystals; dissolves in hydro- 
chloric acid, leaving a yellow residue ; streak, brown or 
black; H=5.o. 


lihodclirosite (manganese carbonate) — Man ganocal cite 
(manganese, calcium and magnesium carbonates) — Khod- 
onite and Tephroite (manganese silicate) — Helvite (iron, 
manganese and glucinum silicates with manganese sul- 
phide) — 'Wad (oxides of manganese, calcium and barium) 
Carpholite (manganese and aluminum silicates) — Spess- 
partite (aluminum, manganese and calcium silicates) — 
Pyrochroite (manganese hydrate) — Piedmontite (alumi- 
num and manganese silicates) — Zwieselite (manganese 
and iron phosphates with iron fluoride) — Childrenite 
(manganese, iron and aluminum phosphates) — Tantalite 
(iron and manganese tantalate) — -Columbite (iron and 
manganese columbate and tantalate) — -Triplite and Triph- 
ylite (iron and manganese phosphates). 

Giving w^ater in the closed tube : Wad disengages 
chlorine with sulphuric acid and salt; reduces sensibly in 
volume before the blowpipe; greasy lustre; brown streak; 
makes a mark on paper; 11=1. — Pyrochroite ; pearly lus- 
tre; white; becomes bronze colored by exposure to the air; 
turns first green and then brow^n under the action of the 
blowpipe; 11=1 or 1.5. — Carpholite intumesces before the 
blowpipe and then fuses with difficulty to a brownish opaque 
enameled bead; pearly lustre; yellowish color; white 
streak; 11=5. — Childrenite intumesces before the blowpipe 
and colors the flame bluish green ; yields much water in 
the glass tube; has a wine yellow color; a vitreous lustre; 
transparent; yellowish streak; 11=5. 

Eftorvescino; Avith hydrochloric acid: PJiodochrosite 

13G TiiK ]>Lowi'irE. 

decrepitates slightly before the ]jlo\vpii)e; streak, reddish 
white ; 11=4. — Mangcuiocakite gives a white streak ; H= 
5 ; blowpipe reactions same as preceding. 

Giving a skeleton of silica in tlie salt of phosphorus 
bead : 

a. Soluble in hydrochloric acid: Tephroite fuses to a 
black scoria; vitreous lustre ; color, gray or brown; streak, 
gray; 11 = 5.5. — Ilelvite boils and fuses before the blow- 
pipe; in the reducing flame it yields a semi-opaque bead; 
gives a bismuth coating on charcoal ; affords also the sul- 
phur reaction ; greasy lustre ; green color ; gray streak ; 

h. Insoluble in hydrochloric acid : Ilhodonite fuses on 
charcoal to a black bead; brownish red color; reddish 
v/hite streak ; H = 5.5. — Piedmontlte fuses easily to a black 
glass; reddish black color; clear gray streak; H^5 to 6. 
— Spesspartite fuses easily; brownish red color; gray 
streak ; H=6. 

Zwieselite decrepitates before the blowpipe and fuses 
easily ; if v/et with hydrochloric acid, colors the flame blue; 
brown color; grayish white streak; H=5. 

Tantalite ; infusible ; gives feebly the manganese reac- 
tion; iron black color; brov>'n streak; II=G.5. 

Cohanhite, also infusible; gives feeble manganese re- 
action ; blackish brown color; 11 = 6.5. 

Triplite fuses easily; boils strongly and gives a brilliant 
globule ; streak, greenish gray to brownish yellow ; 11= 

TriphyUte fuses cpiietly and easily to a steel gray mag- 
netic globule ; colors the flame a pale blue-green color ; 
sometimes reddish ; gives feebly the manganese reaction ; 
greasy lustre ; greenish gray color; streak, gray. 

The Blowpipe. 137 


Zincite (zinc oxide) — Smitlisonite (zinc carbonate) — 
Iljdrozincite (liydrated zinc carbonate) — Gabnite (zinc, 
iron, magnesium and abarainum oxides) — Willemite (zinc 
silicate) — Calamine (bjdrated zinc silicate). 

Effervescing witli hydrochloric acid: Smct7iso?iite ; in- 
fusible ; 11=5. — Hydrozlncite yields water in the closed 
tube ; color, white; streak, shining ; H=2.5. 

Giving a skeleton of silica in the microcosmic salt 
bead: Calamine decrepitates and gives off water in the 
closed tube; sometimes of a delicate bluish tint; streak, 
white; H=o. — TE^Y/e^/z/fe yields no water; brittle and ex- 
hibits a conchoidal fracture; 11=5.5. 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid: Zi/icite has an adaman- 
tine lustre and yellow streak ; H=4. 

Insoluble in hydrochloric acid : Gahnite lias a vitreous 
lustre and a vrhite streak. 



a. Yielding vxtter in the closed tube. 

Sassolite (boric acid) — Ilydroboracite (calcium and 
magnesium borates) — Torbernite (calcium and copper 

138 T K E Blowpipe. 

phosphates with iiraniuin oxide) — Dnfrenite and Yivia- 
nite (both ii'on phosphates). 

SassoUte colors the flame green and gives a sublimate 
in the closed tube; Ii=l. 

JTi/droboracite fuses ixud colors the flame pale green ; 
partially soluble in water; 11=2. 

Torhernite gives reaction of uranium ; streak, varying 
from yellow to green. 

Dufrenife gives the iron reaction in the borax bead; 
fuses on coal to an earthy globule ; silky lustre ; color, va- 
rying from green to brown: streak, yellowish gray ; 11= 

Yivianite boils before the blowpipe and becomes red; 
lustre, vitreous ; streak, bluish Avhite ; 11=1.5. 

h. Yielding no water in dosed tuhe. 

Wagnerite (magnesium phosphate and magnesium 
fluoride) — Apatite (calcium phosphate with calcium fluo- 
ride and chloride) — Amblygonite (aluminum, sodium and 
lithium phosphates, together with lithium and aluminum 
fluorides) — Chiolite and Cryolite (sodium and aluminum 
fluorides) — Boracite (magnesium borate with magnesium 
chloride) — Keilhanite (contains calcium, iron, titanium, 
yttrium and aluminum, mostly as silicates) — Molybdite 
(molybdenum oxide). 

Boracite colors the flame pale green, and a very high 
temperature yields water ; H==7. 

Assuming a bluish green color when wet with sulphuric 
acid : 'Wcignerite boils and fuses ; dissolves in dilute sul- 
phuric acid ; H=3. — Apatite fuses quietly; insoluble in 
dilute sulphuric acid ; 11=5. — Amhlygonite fuses very 
easily ; gives feebly the reaction for fluorine, also of 
lithium; H==2. 

The B l o w p i e e . 139 

Cri/oUte iiises even in an ordinary flame to a limpid bead 
which becomes opaque upon cooling ; in the closed tube 
gives the reaction for hydrofluoric acid; H==2.5. — Ohio- 
lite, same reactions as cryolite ; H=4 ; both substances 
exhibit soda reaction in the flame. 

JTeilhcmite; the salt of phosphorus bead contains a 
skeleton of silica ; in the inner flame it exhibits the char- 
acteristic color of titanium compounds. 

3folybdite gives molybdenum reaction ; earthy appear- 
ance; yellow streak. 


a. Mineral hydrates. 

Uraconite (uranium oxide) — Turquoise — Peganite — 
Fischerite (aluminum phosphates with different propor- 
tions of water) — Wavellite (aluminum phosphate and 
aluminum fluoride) — Lantlianite (lanthanum carbonate) 
— Parisite (lanthanum and cerium carbonates) — Gibbsite 
(aluminum hydrated oxide). 

Coloring the flame green if first wet with sulphuric 
acid : Turquoise turns brown before the blowpipe ; colors 
the flame green; greenish blue color; white streak; H=6. 
— Pegcmite turns pink in closed tube ; otherwise like tur- 
quoise; H=3.5. — Flscherite turns white in tube; has a 
green color; H=5. — Wavellite in the closed tube releases 
hydrofluoric acid ; turns white ; exhibits the blue of alu- 
mina if treated with cobalt solution. 

Effervescing with hydrochloric acid : Lantlianite 
browns in the closed tube; pearly or dull lustre ; streak, 
white. — Parisite browns in tlie glass tube; vitreous lustre; 
Btreak, white. 

Uraconite; the microcosmic salt bend gives the ura- 

140 ' T II i: 13 L o Av V I VIZ. 

niiim reaction ; becomes red in the closed tube ; earthy- 
looking; 3^ellow; H=l. 

Glbbsite whitens and exfoliates before the blowpipe ; 
becomes luminous without fusing ; becomes deep blue with 
cobalt solution ; transparent ; 11=2.5. 

h. Anhydrous minerals. 

Uraninite (aranium oxides) — Chromic Oxide — Mag- 
nesite (magnesium carbonate) — Monazite (cerium and 
lanthanum phosj)hates) — Poljcrase (titanium, iron, zir- 
conium, yttrium and niobium oxides) — Periclasite (mag- 
nesium oxide) — Apatite (phosphate, fluoride and chloride 
of calcium) — Fluocerite (cerium fluoride). 

Uraninite gives the reaction of uranium ; greasy lus- 
tre; black streak ; 11=5.5. 

Chromic Oxide ; gives beautiful green color to the 
borax bead ; soft and earthy. 

Apatite if wet with sulphuric acid colors the flame blue- 

Ilagnesite effervesces with acid and takes a flesh color 
when treated with cobalt solution. 

Monazite if moistened with suljDhuric acid, colors the 
flame bluish green ; streak, reddish yellow. 

Poll/erase decrepitates before the blowpipe ; heated 
rapidly it forms a brilliant brownish yellow mass ; streak, 
brownish yellow. 

Fluocerite yields the fluorhydric acid reaction ; whitens 
before the blowpipe. 

Periclasite becomes bright red if treated with cobalt 
solution ; vitreous lustre ; H=6. 

The Blowpipe. 141 



a. Minerals Gontaining vKiter. 

Datholite (boro-silicate of lime) — Xatrolite, Analcite 
and Ginelinite (sodmm aud aluminum silicates) — Scole- 
cite, Laumontite, Gismondite and Thomsonite (calcium 
and aluminum silicates) — Philipsite (calcium, potassium 
and aluminum silicate) — Faujasite (calcium, sodium and 
aluminum silicate) — Hisingerite (ferrous and ferric sili- 
cates) — Chloropal (ferric silicate). 

Communicating the yellow color of sodium to the flame: 
JSfatrolite becomes opaque before the blowpipe and then 
fuses to a transparent green; vitreous lustre; gives often an 
alkaline reaction when moistened; H=5. — Analcite fuses 
to a bead which is opaque but containing minute transpa- 
rent bubbles or vesicles ; vitreous or j)early lustre ; will 
give the alkaline reaction; H=5.5. — Philipsite boils and 
then fuses to a transparent bead; vitreous lustre; H=4.5. 
— Faujasite gives the soda flame feebly, boils and then 
fuses to a white enamel; vitreous or adamantine lustre ; 

Gmelinite gives feebly soda reaction in the flame ; fuses 
readily to a semi-transparent mass filled with minute bub- 
bles ; H==4.5. — Thomsonite gives soda flame feebly; boils 
and fuses to a white enamel; H=5.5. 

DathoUie yields a pale green in the flame, due to boric 

1^2 T II E B L o w r I p E . 

acid; boils before llie blowpipe and then fuses; greasy or 
vitreous lustre ; brittle; 11=5.5, 

Scolecite intumesces before the blowpipe and some va- 
rieties curl up like a worm (hence the name) ; it also fuses 
to a white enamel, containing minute bubbles ; vitreous 
lustre; H=5.5. 

Laumontite boils and then reduces to a milk white bead; 
the wet powder sometimes gives an alkaline reaction; 

Gismondlte decrepitates, then becomes transparent and 
finally fuses to a white enamel full of air bubbles; lustre, 
vitreous J 11=5. 

Hisingerite gives iron reaction in the borax bead; 
fuses to a black opaque vesicular mass which is magnetic; 
greasy lustre; black; streak, greenish brown. 

Chloropal assumes a red color before the blowpipe ; is 
magnetic after calcination ; pale yellow color ; has an unc- 
tuous feel; H=2.5 to 4.5. 

J). Anhydrous Winer als. 

Hauynite (sodium and aluminum silicates and calcium 
sulphate) — Xosite (sodium and aluminum silicate with 
sodium sulphate) — Sodalite (sodium and aluminum sili- 
cate with sodium chloride) — Lapis Lazuli (aluminum 
sodium and calcium, silicates and sulphates) — WoUaston- 
ite (calcium silicate) — Eudialyte (zirconium, iron calcium 
and sodium silicates) — Eukolite (zirconium, calcium and 
sodium silicates) — j^ephelite (aluminum and sodium sili- 
cate) — Wernerite (aluminum and calcium silicates) — ■ 
Humboldtilite (aluminum, iron, calcium, and sodium 
silicates) — Tscheffkinite (titanium, cerium, iron, lantha- 
num and copper silicates) — Orthite (iron, calcium, alumi- 
num and cerium silicates) — Fayalite, Lievrite (aluminum, 
iron and manganese silicates). 

The Blowpipe. 143 

Giving sulphur reaction if treated with sodium carbon- 
ate : Jrlauynite^ decrepitates and fuses to a blue green 
bead ; lustre, vitreous ; color varying from blue to white ; 
streak bluish-white ; the wet powder often giving an 
alkaline reaction ; 11=5.5. — Lapis Lazuli fuses with diffi- 
culty to white bead ; rather vitreous lustre ; bright blue 
color ; yields hydrogen sulphide if treated with hydro- 
chloric acid ; H=5.5 — JS^osite fuses only on the edges to 
a glass full of bubbles ; 11=5.5 — 6. 

In the borax bead saturated with copper oxide coloring 
the flame blue : Socialite fuses to a colorless and limpid 
bead. — Eudialyte fuses to an opaque green bead. 

The fused mass becoming magnetic : Fayalite fuses to 
a grayish black magnetic globule, brittle and having a 
magnetic lustre; the borax bead exhibits the iron reac- 
tion; the copper reaction may be obtained in the reduc- 
tion flame by using tin ; it is magnetic before calcination. 
— LievriCe fuses easily to a black magnetic globule ; the 
borax bead presents the iron reaction ; streak black. 

'WoUastonite fuses tranquilly to a transparent gloss. 

^w/l-o^/^e fuses very easily ; after the separation of th© 
silica the hydrochloric solution turns blue if tin foil be 
added; the mineral has a brownish red color. 

JVq:>hel ite iiises without intumescence; greasy or vit- 
reous lustre ; wet powder, alkaline ; H=5. 5. 

Wernerite fuses with considerable bubbling to a spongy 
Lead ; 11=5 to 6. 

Humboldt ilite fuses to a yellowish or black bead ; 11=5. 

Tscheff Iciiiite boils before the blowpipe and becomes 
porous; throws ofl" incandescent particles; heated more 
strongly it fuses to a black bead ; streak, dark brown; 
11=5 to 5.5. 

Orthite fuses with intumescence to a black gloss; yields 
a little water in the closed tube ; color varying from brown 
to black ; streak vellow to o;reenish Q-rav : 11=5.5 to 6. 

144 The B l o w r i i' e . 


a. Minerals containing vKvter. 

Thorite (tboriuin silicate) — Cerite (cerium silicate)-— 
Serpentine, Meerschaum, Antigorite, Monradite, Chrjso- 
tiJe (all magnesium silicates) — Colljrite and Allophane 
(aluminum silicates) — Zeolite (aluminum and magnesium 
silicate) — Diaclasite (magnesium and iron silicates). 

Becoming rose color with cobalt solution ; terpentine 
fuses upon the thin edges ; blackens and yields water in the 
closed tube ; dull or greasy lustre ; H.==3.4. — Diaclasite; 
much like serpentine but exhibits a pearly lustre upon its 
cleavage faces, becomes brown before the blowpipe and 
magnetic after calcination. — Antigorite splits into smooth 
thin laminse which may be fused under the blowpipe to a 
brownish yellow mass ; H^2.5. — Monradite becomes 
darker colored before the blowpipe ; color, yellow ; lustre 
vitreous ; H=G. — Neolite^ greasy or silky lustre ; greasy to 
the touch; H=l. — Chrysotile becomes white before the 
blov/pipe ; has a silky lustre and constitutes most of the 
amianthus of the serpentine rocks. — Meerschaum has an 
earthy texture ; very light ; it contains hygroscopic moist- 
ure which is readily given oif in the closed tube ; at a 
higher temperature yields much water ; H=2. 

Taking a blue color when treated with cobalt solution ; 
Allopliane colors the flame green ; contains much water ; 
Colly rite absorbs moisture ; has a glimmering lustre, a 
greasy feel, and adheres to the tongue ; H=-1.5. 

Thorite is orange, yellow or black, but loses its color 
before the blowpipe; vitreous lustre; streak, reddish gray. 

Cerite^ color, brown to red ; streak, grayish white ; 

T H E B L O W P I P E . 145 

1}. Anhydrous Mine reds. 

Gadolinite (magnesium, yttrium and cerium silicates) 
— Gehlenite (calcium and aluminum silicates) — Chryso- 
lite and Forsterite (magnesium silicates) — Chondrodite 
(magnesium silicate and fluoride). 

Gadolinite; the vitreous varieties become incandescent, 
then suddenly brilliant with intumescence ; other varieties 
with a laminated fracture whiten, intumesce and exfoliate ; 
black color; grayish green streak ; H=6.5. 

Gehlenite does not intumesce ; lustre, slightly greasy; 
color, grayish; streak, white; H=5.5. 

Chrysolite / unalterable before the blowpi2}e ; vitreous 
lustre, greenish yellow color; streak, white. 

Chondrodite becomes milky white before the blowpipe ; 
heated strongly it gives feebly the reaction of fluorhydric 
acid ; color reddish or brownish yellow ; streak, white ; H=6. 

Forsterite behaves like chondrodite; lead gray to yel- 
low ; 11=5.5, 



Danburite (calcium borosilicate) — Lepid elite (lithium 
and aluminum silicate and lithium fluoride) — Petalite, 
Spodumene (lithium and aluminum silicates) — Diallage 
(calcium, magnesium and iron silicates) — Diopside (calcium 
and magnesium silicates) — Augite (calcium, magnesium, 

146 T II E 1> L o w p I r E . 

iron and almninuni silicates) — Axinite (aliuniniim, cal- 
cium, iron and inan<^anese ; borates and silicates) — 
Treniolite (calcium and magnesium silicates) — Araplii- 
bole, Spliene (calcium titanate and silicate) — Orthoclaso 
(potassium and aluminmn silicates) — Albite (aluminum 
and sodium silicates) — Zoisite (calcium and aluminum 
silicates) — Epidote (calcium, manganese, iron and alumi-. 
num silicates) — Garnet (iron and aluminum silicates)— 
Idocrase (aluminum, iron, calcium and magnesium sil- 
icates) — Muscovite (potassium and aluminum silicates) — 
Acmite (sodium and iron silicates) — Tourmaline (alumi- 
num, litliium and manganese, silicates and borates). 

The flame presenting the coloration of lithium especial- 
ly if the substance be fused with 2:>otassium bisulphate : 
Lepldolite boils, fuses easily to a bead filled with bubbles \ 
gives reaction of fluorhydric acid ; B[=2.o. — Petalite fuses 
readil}^ to a white enamel: II=G. — Spodumene intumesces 
and fuses to a translucent bead ; vitreous lustre, pearly 
upon the cleavage faces. 

The flame presents the color of boric acid : Danhuriie 
fuses to a bead translucent while hot, opaque when cold ; 
color, yellow ; streak, white ; lustre, vitreous ; H==7. — 
Ax'uiite fuses with boiling to a deep green bead ; vitreous 
lustre ; color, brown to violet blue ; H=7. — Ihurmcdlne^ 
intumesces and fuses, but with difficulty ; 11=7.5. 

Diallage fuses before the blowpipe, has a pearly lustre 
on the cleavage surface ; is generally bright green and 
opaque \ H=4. 

Uiopslde fuses to a white bead; colorless or bottie 
green ; H=6. 

AufjuG fuses to a. black bead ; color, dark green to 
black ; the powdered mineral if wet has an alkaline reac- 
tion ; 11=6. 

The B l o w pipe. 11-7 

TremoUte fuses with boiling to n. v.liito b:-au ; color, 
white, or greenish white. 

Amphibole ; same as treraolite except that it fuses to a 
green bead. (Xote : Amphibole is the name applied to a 
series of minerals including tremolite : Dana calls the lat- 
ter m.agnesia-lime ampliihole. — Ed.) 

Titanite gives titanium reaction, and fuses with some 
intumescence to a blackish gloss. 

Orthoclase (potash feldspar) fuses quietly ; color, red- 
dish white, greyish white, sometimes green ; has a distinct 
cleavage with a vitreous lustre frequently inclining to 
pearly. 11=6. 

Albite (soda feldspar) presents sharper angles than the 
preceding ; fuses rather more readily, giving soda flame re- 
action ; colors much the same as above though more fre- 
quently translucent. H=3. 

Zoisite fuses with intumescence and boiling to a spongy 
mass of a cauliflower shape; after fusion it dissolves to a 
siliceous jelly in hydrochloric acid ; color, gray. — Epidote^ 
same as preceding ; color of the fused mass is brown or 
black ; color of the mineral is a lively green. 

Garnet fuses quietly; concentrated acids attack it 
slightly; H=7. — Vesiivianite, or Jcloo^ase, much the same 
as preceding ; fuses to a greenish or brownish gloss ; 11=6.5. 
3fasoovUe (potash mica) loses its transparency before the 
blowpipe, becomes white and brittle and finally fuses to 
an enamel ; in a closed tube yields water which shows a 
fluorine reaction. H=2 to 2.5. 

Acmite fuses easily to a black bead ; exhibits iron reac- 
tion in the borax bead ; is strongly attacked by acids ; 
streak, grayish yellow. 


Apophylite (calcium and potassium silicates) — Anal- 

148 The 13 l o w p i p e. 

cite (calciuin and sodium silicates) — Brewstcrite (alii- 
iniiium, barium and strontium silicates) — Chlorite (alu- 
minum, magnesium and iron silicates) — Clionicrite (alu- 
minum, magnesium and calcium silicates) — Gymnite 
(magnesium silicate) — Ilarmotome (aluminum and bar- 
ium silicates) — Heulandite and Stilbite (aluminum and 
calcium silicates) — Pjrosclerite (aluminum, magnesium, 
chromium and iron silicates) — Prehnite (aluminum, cal- 
cium and iron silicates) — Pectolite (aluminum, calcium 
and sodium silicates) — Mosandrite (calcium and sodium 
silicates, containing also iron and titanium) — Chabazite 
(aluminum, calcium, potassium and sodium silicates.) 

Apophylite exfoliates and fuses to a whitish enamel. 
H=4i- to 5. 

Analcite^ white or nearly so, fuses to a glass-like mass, 
colorless, 11=5 to 6. 

Jirewsterite fuses to an opaque white glass. 

Chlorite is generally deep green color with pearly 
lustre ; slightly flexible ; whitens under the blowpipe and 
fuses with difficulty to a blackish mass. 

Chonicrlte. H=2|- to 3. Fuses with intumescence 
to a whitish glass. 

Gymnite fuses on the edges only, becoming o-paque. 
H=2 to 3. 

Ilarmotome fuses without intumescence to a glass. 

Heulandite has a pearly lustre ; under the blowpipe 
exfoliates and fuses to a white enamel. 

Stilbite has a vitreous or pearly lustre ; under the 
blowpipe swells u^d and assumes various forms, finally fus- 
ing to an enamel. H=3 or 4, 

Pyrosclerite is of a greenish color and fuses to a glass. 

T II ]•: B r. o ^v ]• 1 1' e. 149 

Prehnite ; green and with pearly lustre; fuses with 
intumescence to a vesicular, glass}^ mass. 11=6. 

JPectollte ; fibrous, white, with silky lustre. 11=5 ; 
fuses to a white enamel. 

Mosayidrite is of a brownish or reddish color. H^4 ; 
fuses to a brown glass. 

Chahazite has a vitreous lustre, and is wdiite or pinkish 
color ; streak white, fuses to an opaque glass. 



Amphigeiie (aluminum and potassium silicates) — 
Anorthite (aluminum, magnesium, sodium and iron 
silicates) — Grossulaire (aluminum and calcium silicates) 
■ — Keilhauite (titanium, iron, calcium and aluminum 
silicates) — Knebelite (iron and manganese silicates) — 
Labradorite (aluminum, calcium and sodium silicates)— 
Sphene — Titanite (titanium and calcium silicate) — Ta- 
chylite (aluminum, calcium, magnesium and sodium sil- 
icates) — Wernerite (aluminum, calcium, sodium and 

iron silicates). 

■' #■ 

Ampliigene gives alumina reaction with cobalt solution; 
fuses with difficulty. 

Anorthite is wdiite and brittle ; fuses to a colorless 

Grossulaire is a form of garnet ; fuses to a brown or 
black glass. 

150 T II K J] L () W PIPE. 

Kellhauite is of a brown to black color, giving yellow 
to brown streak ; fuses with intumescence to a black 

KnebeUte fuses to a dull-looking bead wliicli is mag- 

Lahradorite has a pearly lustre. II=G ; fuses to a 
colorless glass. 

^phene or Tltanite is brown, yellow, or black ; streak 
white; intnmesces, and fuses to a dark-colored glass. 

Tachylite is black and brittle ; fuses to a black glass. 

J\^ernerite is white or whitish and transparent. H=G, 
fuses to a white glass. 


Quartz — Biotite (magnesium and aluminum silicates) 
Talc (magnesium silicate) — lolite (magnesium and alumi- 
num silicates) — Iljpersthene (magnesium and iron sili- 
cates) — Staurolite (aluminum and iron silicates) — Eme- 
rald — Euclase (aluminum and glucinum silicates) — Phen- 
acite (glucinum silicate) — Zircon (zirconium silicate) — 
Topaz (aluminum silicate with aluminum and silicon 
fluoride) — Uwarowite (aluminum and chromium silicates) 
■ — Chlorite (aluminum, iron and magnesium silicates) — 
Eipidolite (magnesium silicate with magnesium and alu- 
minum oxides) — Opal (silica with water) — Andalusite — 
Cyanite — Cimolite — Lithomarge — Kaolin and Pyrophyl- 
lite (all aluminum silicates). 

Decomposed by concentrated sulphuric acid : Hiotite 
(magnesia mica) becomes opaque before the blowpipe and 
fuses only on the edges ; gives iron reaction in the borax 
bead ; the wet powder is slightl}^ alkaline ; H==2.5. — Chlo- 
?77e exfoliates before the blowjoipe, whitens or blackens and 

T ir K 1j t. o ^^' v i v e. 1 51 

disengages water that has an alkaline reaction. — IHpido- 
lite, same as chlorite except that it fuses rather more easily 
upon the edges. 

Minerals possessing a hardness less than 7 : 7hlc^ be- 
comes red if treated, with cobalt solution ; exfoliates j is 
greasy to the touch ; 11=1. — II)jpersthene is broY>'n or 
black ; has a metallic lustre on one face ; 11=6. — Andalu- 
site gives alumina reaction with cobalt ; is nsually translii 
cent. — Cycmite whitens before the blowpipe, and then 
gives the alumina reaction with cobalt solution ; flexible ; 
H nearly 7. — Cimolite yields vrater in the glass tube; 
yields decided blue color with the cobalt solution ; has an 
earthy look. — TAtliomarge gives up water in the glass tube ; 
exhibits fine blue reaction with cobalt ; Avhitens when 
alone before the blowpipe ; greasy to the touch ; streak, 
greenish Avhite ; 11=2.5. — Kaolin gives off water in the 
glass tube ; affords blue reaction with cobalt ; is friable 
and earthy. — PyrophyUite yields w^ater in the glass tube ; 
exfoliates on the coal and thenintumesces considerably, pro- 
ducing white worm-like masses ; greenish ; 11=1.5. — Opal 
yields water in the glass tube ; scales off under heating 
and becomes opaque ; 11=5.5 to 6.5. 

Hardness above 7 : lolite is fusible in the slightest de- 
gree only; has a vitreous lustre and generally a bluish 
color. — Staurolite is partly decomposed by sulphuric acid ; 
gives in borax bead the reaction for iron ; becomes darker 
colored before the blowpipe. — 'Emerald becomes milky 
before the blowpipe ; at a very hig1i heat, the thin edges 
become rounded and form a colorless spongy looking scoria. 
— Eaclase yields slightly to the ]>lov\^pipe ; whitens and at 
a very high heat takes on a white enamel. — Phenacite is 
transparent and alterable before the blowpipe.^^ — Zircon 
loses its color (whicli is from yellow to cinnamon bi-own) 
when highly heated; 11=7.5. — Topaz^ the yellow varie- 
ties become red if subjected to tlse blowpipe flame, but 

152 Th3-: Blowpii'K. 

only after cooling ; if boric acid be fused on a platinum 
wire -until the green color disappears, and then topaz in 
powder be added, the green coloration reappears in the 
flame. — Andalusite gives the alumina reaction with cobalt. 
— Uwaroicite becomes greenish black before the blowpipe, 
but becomes lighter green again when cold ; gives a green 
bead with borax ; — Quartz, vitreous lustre : H=7. 


Tungstite (tungstic oxide) — Scheelite (calcium tung- 
stite) — Cassiterite (tin oxide) — Rutile- — Anatase and 
Brookite (titanium oxides) — Escbynite (titanivim., zirconi • 
um, calcium and cerium oxides) — Perofskite (calcium tita- 
nate) — Pyrochlore (calcium, cerium and niobium oxides 
with sodium fluoride) — Xenotime (yttrium phosphate) — 
Spinel (magnesium and aluminum oxides) — Gahnite (zinc, 
iron and aluminum oxides) — Wolfram (iron and manga- 
nese tungstate) — Corundum and Diaspore (aluminum ox- 
ides) — Yttrotantalite (tantalum, yttrium and calcium ox- 
ides) — ^Euxenite (titanium, yttrium, uranium and cerium 
oxides) — Polymignite (titanium, zirconium, yttrium, iron 
and cerium oxides) — Chrysoberyl (glucinum and alumi- 
num oxides) — Polycrase (niobium, titanium, zirconium, 
cerium, yttrium and iron oxides) — Klaprothine (magne- 
sium and aluminum phosphates) — Columbite (manganese 
and iron niobate) — Osiridium — Graphite — Diamond. 

The microcosmic salt bead presents the reaction of 
tungsten ; Tungstite, soft, has a silky lustre, a yellow 
color, and blackens before the blowpipe. — Scheelite fuses 

The Blowpipe. 153 

with difficulty; it is decomposed by hydrochloric acid, 
leaving a yellow residue ; color, white, yellow or brown; 
streak, white ; H=4.5. — 'Wolfram fuses with difficulty to 
a magnetic globule covered with crystals ; dissolves in hy- 
drochloric acid leaving a yellow residue ; the borax bead 
exhibits the manganese reaction ; streak brown or black; 

The microcosmic salt bead exhibits the titanium reac- 
tion ; Anatase, infusible ; color indigo blue to black ; 
streak, gray ; H=5.5. — Riitile, infusible ; brownish red 
color ; yellow streak ; H=6.5. — BrooTcite^ like anatase ; 
crystallizes in the rhombic system. — Eschyyiite, infusible ; 
intumesces somewhat and turns yellow; streak, yellowish 
brown ; — Perofskite, infusible j streak grayish white. 

JEuxenite, infusible ; greasy lustre ; dark brown color ; 
streak, brownish red ; H=6.5. — Folymignite^ infusible ; 
metallic lustre ; iron black color ; dark brown streak ; H= 
6.5. — Polycrase decrepitates but is infusible ; changes by 
calcination to a brownish gray mass ; is dissolved by sul- 
phuric acid. 

Cassiterite gives if heated with sodium carbonate on 
charcoal little flakes of tin ;. adamantine lustre ; streak 
clear brown ; H=6.o. 

Pyrochlore becomes gray before the blowpipe ; the 
borax bead is reddish yellow in the oxidation flame, and 
deep red in the reduction flame ; streak, gray ; H=5.5. 

JCenotime, infusible; transparent; greasy lustre; brown 
color; streak varying from yellow to rose color ; H=4.5. 

Spinel^ infusible ; crystallizes in regular octohedrons ; 
readily soluble in microcosmic salt bead ; H=8. 

Gahnite does not dissolve in microcosmic salt ; other- 
wise is like spinel. 

Corundum^ infusible and insoluble. 

Piasporej infusible ; decrepitates violently in the glass 

154 T JI K ] ) L ( ) W J* [ P K. 

tube, and rccluces to little white Hakes ; yields water a lit- 
tle below red heat; has a brownish red color; 11=5.5. 

Yttrotcmtalite, infusible ; gives off water in the glass 
tube which affords an acid reaction, by reason of the pres- 
ence of fluohydric acid. 

Clirysoheryl^ infusible ; insoluble in acids ; transparent ; 
greenish color ; H=S.o. 

Klaprothine^ infusible; is not attacked by acids unless 
jDreviously calcined, when it may be to a great extent dis- 
solved; streak white; 11=5.5. 

Columhite, infusible ; insoluble in acids ; metallic lus- 
tre; streak reddish brown to black; 11=6. 

Oslridium ; unalterable before the blowpipe ; calcined 
with nitre in the glass tube it yields the odor characteris- 
tic of osmium ; H=7. 

Graphite burns before the blowpipe ; H=2, 

Diamond ; H=10. 


(a.) Method of dlstinguisldng tlie red flcane of Litliia 
from that of Strontia, — It has been long known that the 
crimson coloration imparted to the blow-pipe flame by 
strontia, is destroyed by the presence of baryta. The latter 
snbstance, hoY/ever, as first indicated by the writer, does 
not affect the crimson flame-coloration produced by lithia. 
Hence, to distinguish the two flames, the test-substance 
may be fused with 2 or 3 volumes of chloride of barium, in 
a loop of platinum wire, the fused mass being kept just 
v/ithin the point or edge of the blue cone. If the original 
flame-coloration proceeded from strontia (or lime), an im- 
pure brownish yellow tinge will be imparted to the flame- 
border ; but if the original red color were caused by lithia, 
it will not only remain undestroyed, but its intensity will 
be much increased. 

This test may be applied, amongst other bodies, to the 
natural silicates, Lepidolite, Spodumene, &c. It is equally 
ayailable, also, in the examination of phosphates. The 
mineral Tryphylline, for example, when treated ^;er se, im- 
parts a green tint to the j)oint of the flame, owing to the 
presence of phosphoric acid ; but if this mineral be fused 
(in powder) with chloride of barium, a beautiful crimson 
coloration in the surrounding flame-border is at once pro- 

* The articles in the Appendix from a to i, inclusive, arc taken, with slight alter- 
fctions, from some pnt>lishc(l notes of Prof. Ciiapmax, of Toronto. Article j originated 
with Mr. liANpAUBR. 

lo6 Appendix. 

(b.) Reaction of Manganese Salts on Baryta. — AVhen 
moistened with a solution of any manganese salt, and ignit- 
ed in an oxidizing flame, baryta and baryta compounds, 
generally assume, on cooling, a blue or greenish-blue color. 
This arises from the formation of a manganate of baryta. 
Strontia and other bodies (apart from the alkalies), when 
treated in this manner, become brown or dark grey. A 
mixture of baryta and strontia also assumes an indefinite 
gi'eyish-brown color. If some oxide of manganese be fused 
Avith carbonate of soda, so as to produce a greenish-blue 
bead, or ^' turquoise enamel," and some baryta or a baryta 
salt be melted into this, the color of the bead will remain 
unchanged; but if strontia be used in place of baryta, a 
brown or greyish-brow^n enamel is j)roduced. 

Note. — Some examples of Witherite, Barytine, and Baryto-calcite, 
contain traces of oxide of manganese. Theso, after strong ignition, 
often assume per se a pale greenisli-bliie color. 

{c.) Detection of Baryta in the 2:)resence of Strontia. — This 
test is chiefly applicable to the detection of baryta in the 
natural sulphate of strontia ; but it answers equally for the 
examination of chemical precipitates, &c., in which baryta 
and strontia may be present together. The test-matter, in 
fine powder, is to be melted in a platinum spoon, with 3 or 
4 Yolumes of chloride of calcium, and the fused mass treated 
with boiling water. For this purpose, the spoon may be 
dropped into a test-tube, or placed (bottom upwards) in a 
small porcelain capsule. The clear solution, decanted from 
any residue that may remain, is then to be diluted with 8 
or 10 times its Yolume of water, and tested with a few drops 
of chromate (or bi-chromate) of potash. A precipitate, or 
turbidity, indicates the presence of baryta. 

{cL) Actioji of Baryta on Titanic Acid. — Fused with 
borax in a reducing flame, titanic acid forms a dark arae- 

The Blowpipe. 157 

thys tine-blue glass, wliich becomes light blue and opaque 
when subjected to the flaming process. The amethystine 
color arises from the presence of Ti'O^ : the light-blue en- 
amelled surface from the precipitation of a certain portion 
of TiOl The presence of baryta, even in comparatively 
small quantity, quite destroys the latter reaction. "When 
exposed to an intermittent flame, the glass (on the addition 
of baryta) remains dark-blue, no precipitation of titanic 
acid taking place. Strontia acts in the same manner, but a 
much larger quantity is required to produce the reaction. 

(e.) Detection of Oxide of Manganese when present in 
minute quantity in mineral hodies. — The process on page 
134 may be varied to advantage, as follows, viz. : — Dissolve 
the assay in a borax or microcosmic salt bead, and then 
treat the fused mass with carbonate of soda in excess. If 
there be a trace of manganese present, the bead will assume 
the turquoise-enamel appearance, which arises from the 
formation of manganate of soda. 

(/.) Method of distinguishing the Protoxide of Iron (FeO) 
from the Sesquioxide {Fe^O^) in Silicates and other com- 
pounds. — This test serves to indicate, with great certainty, 
the presence or absence of FeO in bodies generally. It is 
performed as follows : — A small quantity of black oxide of 
copper (CuO) is dissolved in a bead of borax on platinum 
wire, so as to form a glass which exhibits, on cooling, a de- 
cided blue color, but which remains transparent. To this, 
the test-substance in the form of powder is added, and the 
whole is exposed for a few seconds, or until the test-matter 
begins to dissolve, to the point of the blue flame. If the 
substance contain Fe'^0^ only, the glass, on cooling, will re- 
main transparent, and will exhibit a bluish-green color. On 
the other hand, if the test-substance contain FeO, this will 
become at once converted into Fe^O^ at the expense of some 

iao A P P E X D I X . 

of the oxygen of the copper compound ; and opaque red 
streaks and spots of Cu'O will appear in the glass, as the 
latter cools. 

{[/.) Defection of minute traces of Copjjer in Iron Pyrites 
and other dodies. — Although an exceedingly small percen> 
age of co23per may be detected in blowpipe experiments, by 
the reducing process, as well as by the azure-blue coloration 
of the flame when the test-matter is moistened with chlo- 
rhydic acid, these methods fail, in certain extreme cases, to 
give satisfactory results. It often happens, that veins of 
iron pyrites lead, at greater depths, to copper p3'rites. In 
this case, according to the experience of the writer, the iron 
pyrites will, almost invariably, hold minute traces of cop- 
per. Hence the desirability, on exploring expeditions more 
especially, of some ready test, by which, without the neces- 
sity of employing acids or other bulky and difficultly port- 
able reagents, these traces of copper may be detected. The 
following simple method will be found to answer the pur- 
pose : — The test-substance, in powder, must first be roasted 
on charcoal, or, better, on a fragment of porcelain, in order 
to drive off the sulphur. A small portion of the roasted 
ore is then to be fused on platinum wire with phosphor-salt ; 
and some bisulphate of potash is to be added to the glass 
(v/ithout this being removed from the wire) in two or three 
successive portions, or until the glass becomes more or less 
saturated. This effected, the bead is to be shaken off the 
platinum loop into a small capsule, and treated with boiling 
Avater, by vrhich either the whole or greater part will be dis- 
solved; and the solution is finally to be tested with a small 
fragment of ferrocyanide of potassium ("yellow prussiate.") 
If copper be present in more than traces, this reagent, it is 
well kno7vm, will produce a deep-red precipitate. If the 
copper be present in smaller quantity, that is, in exceedingly 

The jJLO>f?ix'E. liI9 

minute traces, the precipitate will be brown or brownish - 
black ; and if copper be entirely absent, the precipitate will 
be blue or green — assuming, of course, that iron pyrites or 
some other ferruginous substance is operated upon. In 
this experiment, the preliminary fusion with phosphor-salt 
greatly facilitates the after solution of the substance in bi- 
sulphate of potash. In some instances, indeed, no solution 
takes place if this preliminary treatment with phosphor- 
salt be omitted. 

(Ji.) Detection of Lead in tlie presence of Bismutli. — When 
lead and bismuth are present together, the latter metal 
may be readily detected by its known reaction with phos- 
phor-salt in a reducing-flame — antimony, if present, being 
first eliminated ; but the presence of lead is less easily as- 
certained. If the latter metal be present in large quantity, 
it is true, the metallic globule will be more or less malleable, 
and the flame-border will assume a clear blue color when 
made to play upon its surface, or on the sublimate of lead- 
oxide as produced on charcoal ; but in other cases, this re- 
action becomes exceedingly indefinite. The presence of 
lead may be detected, however, by the following plan, based 
on the known reduction and precipitation of salts of bis- 
muth by metallic lead : a method which succeeds perfectly 
with brittle alloys containing 85-90 per cent, of bismuth. 
A small crystal or fragment of nitrate of bismuth is placed 
in a porcelain capsule, and moistened with a few drops of 
water, the greater part of which is afterwards poured off; 
and the metallic globule of the mixed metals, as obtained 
by the blowpipe, haying been slightly flattened on the anyil 
until it begins to crack at the sides, is then placed in the 
midst of the sub-salt of bismuth formed by the action of 
the water. In the course of a minute, or eyen less, accord- 
ing to the amount of lead that may be present, an arbores- 

160 A p r E X D I X . 

cent crystallization of motallic Ijismuili will he formed 
around the globule. 

This reaction is not effected by cojiper ; but a precipita- 
tion of bismuth would ensue, in the absence of lead, if either 
zinc or iron were pres3nt. These metals, however, may be 
eliminated from the test-globule, by exposing this on char- 
coal for some minutes, with a mixture of carb-soda and 
borax, to a reducing-flame. The zinc becomes volatilized, 
and the iron is gradually taken up by the borax. If a sin- 
gle operation does not effect this, the globule must be re- 
moved from the saturated dark green glass, and treated witli 
farther portions of the mixture, until the resulting glass be 
no longer colored. 

(i.) Detection of Antiinomj in Tule-SuUlmates. — In the 
examination of mineral bodies for antimony, the test-sub- 
stance is often roasted in an open tube for the production 
of a white sublimate. The presence of antimony in this 
sublimate may be detected by the following process — a 
method more especially available when the operator has only 
a portable blowpipe case at his command : — The portion of 
the tube to which the chief portion of the sublimate is at- 
tached is to be cut off by a triangular file, and dropped into 
a test-tube containing some tartaric acid dissolved in water. 
This being warmed or gently boiled, a part, at least, of the 
sublimate will be dissolved. Some bisulphate of potash — 
either alone, or mixed with some carb-soda and a little 
borax, the latter to prevent absorption. — is then to be fused 
on charcoal in a reducing-flame ; and the alkaline sulphide 
thus produced is to be removed by the point of the knife- 
blade, and placed in a small porcelain capsule. The hepatic 
mass is most easily separated from the charcoal by remov- 
ing it before it has time to solidify. Some of the tartaric 
acid solution is then to be dropped upon it, when the well- 

The Blowpipe. 161 

known orange-colored precipitate of SbS' Avill at once 

In performing this test, it is as well to employ a some- 
what large fragment of the test-substance, so as to obtain a 
thick deposit in the tube. It is advisable, also, to hold the 
tube in not too inclined a position, in order to let but a 
moderate current of air pass through it ; and care must be 
taken not to expose the sublimate to the action of the flame 
— otherwise it might be converted almost wholly into a 
compound of SbO' and SbO^, the greater part of which 
would remain undissolved in the tartaric acid solution. A 
sublimate of arsenious acid, treated in this manner, would, 
of course, yield a yellow precipitate, easily distinguished by 
its color, however, from the deep orange antimonial sul- 
phide. The crystalline character, etc., of this sublimate, 
would also effectually prevent any chance of misconception. 

(j.) Chlorctte of Potassa as a Reagent. — The action of 
this salt is, of course, that of energetic oxidation, caused 
by the evolution of oxygen at a high temperature. 

The detection of the oxides of the metals below, is readily 
effected by the following means : — In a tube 15 centimeters 
long, and 5 millimeters in diameters, closed at one end, 
place the test-substance, together with a small quantity of 
the chlorate ; apply heat gradually, at first without, and 
then with, help of the blowpipe, until no more oxygen is 
given off. The reaction is then completed, and the color 
of the test is to be examined. 

Flesh color indicates presence 

of Iron. . 




Black, or grayisli-black, " 



Blue to black, 









-l-^^2 Appendix. 

(L) iXDiu:\r. 

This metal was discoYered iu 1863, by Professor Eicliter, 
at Freiburg, Saxon3^ It is found, in very small quantities, 
in the black sulphide of zinc of the Freiburg mines. 

The metal is nearly the color of aluminum, soft, ductile, 
and has a specific gravity of 7.14. 


UjJO/i Charcoal — Under the oxidizing flame becomes, 
while hot, dark yellow, and upon cooling, light yellow. 

Under the reducing flame it is gradually reduced. The 
reduced metal is volatile, and deposits a coating upon the 
the coal ; the outer flame is, at the same time, tinged with 

In Borax Bead. — Under the oxidizing flame, dissolves to 
a faintly-colored yellow bead, which becomes colorless upon 
cooling ; and if great quantities of the assay be added, be- 
comes opaque. 

Under the reducing flame, the glass remains unchanged. 
If placed upon charcoal, the oxide is reduced — the metal 
volatilizes, and is again oxidized, and coats the coal. Not- 
withstanding the presence of soda, the violet color is per- 
ce]3tible in the outer flame. 

Treated idtli Soda. — In the oxidizing flame, insoluble. 

In the reducing flame, upon coal, the oxide is reduced ; 
a portion is volatilized, and coats the coal with oxide ; and 
R portion remains in the mass, in snipJl white beads. 


Acerclase, 134. 
Acmite, 146. 
Aikiuite, 125. 
Albandite, 128. 
Albite, 146. 
AlJophane, 144. 

Alamina, reactions in borax bead, 78, 78. 
" in mic. salt, 80, 83. 

reaction on charcoal, 41. 
Aluminite. 122, 123. 
Altaite, 113. 
Alunite, 122. 
Amalgam, 132. 
Amblygonite, 138. 
Ammonia, 62, 65. 
Amphibole, 146. 
Amphigene. 149. 
Analcime, 141. 
Aualcite, 143. 
AnatasCj 149. 
Andalusite, 148. 
Anglesite, 125. 
Anhydrite, 122, 
Anorthite, 149. 
Antigorite, 144. 

Antimony, metallic, 54, 56, 6?, 64, liO, 

oxide Oi",genera! reactions, 99, 
111, 118. 

oside of, in borax bead, 76,78. 

oxide of, in mic. salt, 80, 8. 
Antimoniate of potassa, 4i. 
Antimonochre, 111. 
Apatite, 138, 140. 
Apophylite, 143. 
Aragonite, 121. 
Arcanite, 120. 
Argyrose, 125. 

Arsenic, general reactions of, 109, 112. 
reaction in glass bnlb. 50. 
"■ on charcoal. 56. 
" in platinum forceps, 
62, 64. 
Arsenions acid, 50, 103. 
Asbolite, 134. 
Atac imite, 132. 
Augite, 145. 
Axinite, 143. 
Azwrite, 133. 

Baratocalcite, 121. 
Baryta, as reagent, 35. 

reaction in forceps, 62, 66. 

" in borax bead. 76, 73. 

" in mic. salt bead, 80, 82. 
Barytite. 1?2. 
]%erzeliianite, IIG. 
Bieberite. 'i'27. 

Biotite, 147. 

Bismuth, reaction of, in tube, 54, 180. 
" on charcoal, 57. 
chloride of, 61. 
oxide of, in borax bead, 76, 78, 

oxide of, in mic. salt bead, 80, 82. 
oxides of, general properties of, 

sulphide of, 60. 
Bismutite, 126, 130. 
Bismuthinite, 126. 
Blast, method of producing, 16. 
Blowpipe, construction of, 12. 

use of, 9. 
Blende, 128. 
Boraic acid, as reagent. 4^^. 

reactions of, 62, 65, 1.37. 
Bornlte, 125, 12 *. 
Boracite, 122, 138. 
Borocalcite, 122. 
Borax, 119. 

Borax beads, reactions, 76, 78. 
Botryogen, 124. 
Eoulangerite, 117. 
Bournonite, 116. 
Boussiugaltite, 119. 
Brnunite, 133. 
Breithauptite, 117. 
Brewsterite, 143. 
Brochantite, 127. 
Bromide of copper, 62, 04. 
Bromlite, 121. 
Bromyrite, 132. 
Brookite, 152. 
Brotite, 147. 
Erucite, 121, 123. 

Cacoxene, 128. 

Cadmium, reaction en charcoal, 58. 

oxide of, leaction in borax 
bead, '16, 78. 

oxide of, reaction in mic. 
salt, 80, 82. 
Calc emr, 121. 
Calomel, 111. 
Carnaltite, 119. 
Carpholite, 135. 
Cassiterite, 152. 
Castillitc, 129. 
Celestiue, 122. 
Cerargyrite, 132. 
Cerium, oxide of, reaction on borax 

bead, 76, 78. 
oxide of, reaction on mic. salt 

bead, 80, 82. 
Cerite, IM. 
Chabazlte, 148. 



ChalcocUe, 125, 1J9. 
Chalcophyllite, 113. 
Chalcopyrites, 1*5, 129. 
Chalcostibite, 117. 
Charcoal, properties of, 24. 

as reagcut, 55. 
Chillrenite, 135. 
Chiolite, U3, 133. 
Chlorides, 61. 
Chlorite, 148, 150. 
Chloropal, 1-^5, 141. 
Chondrareenite, li3. 
Choiidrodite, 144. 
Chonicrite, 148. 

Chromium, oxide of, {rencral reactions, 
reactions in borax bead, 76, 

73, 140. 
reactions in mic. salt bead, 
Christophite, 129. 
Chrome iron, 104. 
Chrysoberyl, 152. 
Chrysocolla, 133. 
Chrysolite, 145. 
Cimolite, 150. 
Cinnabar, 111. 
Clausthalite, 115. 
Cobalt, oxide, reaction cf, 83. 

" •' in borax bead, 

76. 78. 
oxide, reaction cf, in mic. salt 

bead, 80, 82. 
nitrate of, as reagent, 40. 
glance, 112. 
Collvrite, 144. 
Cohimbite, 135, 150. 
Copper, 132. 

oxide of, as reagent, 41. 

" reaction in borax bead, 
76, 78. 94. 
oxide of, reaction in mic. salt 

bead, 80. 82, 94. 
bromide of. 62, 64. 
chloride of, 62. 
pyrites, 125. 
Coprapite, 125. 
Coquimbite, 125. 
Correlite, 125, 129. 
Corundum, 152. 
Costillite, 126. 
Cotunnite. 111. 
Crednerite, 133. 
Crocolite, 131. 
Cryolite, 123, 138. 
Cuprite. 132. 
Cuproplumbite. 125. 
Cyanite, 15J. 

Danburite, 145. 
Datho ite, 141. 
Dechenite, ISl. 
Diaclasite, 1-14. 
Diallage, 145. 
Diamond, 152. 
Diaspore, 152. 

DidjTnium, oxide, react'ons in borax 
bead, 73, 73. 

Didmlum. oxide, reactions in 
salt bead, 80, 82. 
general reactions, 87. 
Diopside, 145. 
Dioptase, 133. 
Disomose, 113. 
Dolomite, 121. 
Dufrenite, 13S. . 
Dul'renoysite, 112. 
Dyserasite, 116. 

Emery, 150. 
Emerald, 150. 
Epidote, 148. 
Epsomite, 119. 
Erinite, 113. 
Erythrine, 11.3. 
Eschynite, 149. 
Euchroite, 113. 
Euclase, 1^0. 
Eudialite, 142. 
Eulytite, 130. 
Eupoiite, 142. 
Eusynchite, 131. 
Euxenite, 15J. 

Fauysite, 141. 
Fayalite, 143. 
Fischerite, 139. 
Flame, reducing. 19. 
oxidizing, 17, 
Fluocerite, 140. 
Fluorine, 55. 
Fluor spar, 43, 122. 
Franklinite. 124. 
Friteslebenite, 116. 

Gadolinite, 145. 
Gahnite, 137, 152. 
Galena, 125. 
Garnet, 146. 
Gaylussite, 121. 
Gehlenite, 145. 
Geocronite. 113, 116. 
Gibbsite, 139. 
Ginelinite, lc9. 
Gismondite, 141. 
Glauberite, 122. 
Gold, 96, 134. 
GOthite, 124. 
Goslarite, 123. 
Graphite, 111. 152. 
Greenockite, 128. 
Grossulaire. 149, 
Gj-mnite, 148. 

Haidinorerite. 123. 
Harmotome. 148. 
Hauerite, 128. 
Haussmanite, 133. 
Hauvnite, 142. 
Helvite, 135. 
Hematite, 124. 125. 
Heulandite, 148. 
Hisinserite, 141. 
Humboldtilite, 143. 
Hvdroboracite, l.b7. 
Hydromagnesite, 121. 



Hydroziucite, 137. 
Hyperstlxcne, 150. 

Idocrase, 146. 
Iodides, 61. 
lodyrite, 132. 
lolite, 150. 
Iridium, 152. 

Iron, oxide, reaction of, in borax bead, 
76, 78, 88. 

oxide, reaction of, in mic. salt 
bead, 80, 82, 88. 

pyrites, 128. 

spoons, 28. 

Jamesonite, 116, 117. 
Johannite, 128. 

Kalinite, 119. 
Kaolin, 150. 
Keilhanite, 138, 149. 
Kermes, 111, 118. 
Kieserite, 122. 
Klaprothine, 15S. 
Knebelite, 149. 
Kobellite, 116. 
Kottegite, 113. 

Labradorite, 149. 
Lanarldte, 125. 
I.angite, 127. 
Lanthanite, 139. 
Lapis lazuli, 142. 
Laumonite, 141. 
Leadhillite, 125. 
Lead, metallic, 130. 

oxide of, reactions in open tube, 

54, 130. 
oxide of, reactions on charcoal. 57. 

" " in forceps, 62. 

chloride, of, 61. 
oxide of, reaction in borax bead, 

76, 78, 91. 
oxide of, reaction in mic. salt 

bead, 80, 82, 91. 
sulphide of, 60. 
Lepidolite, 145. 
Leucopyrite, 113. 
Libenthenite, ISl. 

Lime, reactions of, in platinum forceps, 
62. 69. 
reactions of, in borax bead, 70, 73. 
'' in mic. salt bead, 80, 

Limonite, 124. 
Linarite. 127. 
Liroconite, 113. 

Lithia. reactions In forceps, 62, 68. 
Lithomarge, 150. 
Lowsite, 119. 

Magnesia, reactions witli nitrate of co- 
balt, 41. 
reactions in borax bead, 76, 

reactions in mic. salt bead, 
80, 82. 
Magnesitc, 121, 143. 

Magnetic iron ore, 124. 

Malachite,' 133. 

Manganese, oxide, reactions in borax 

bead, 76, 78. 
oxide, reactions in mic. salt 

bead, 80, 82. 
Manganocalcite, 1S5. 
Marceline, 133. 
Matlockite, 130. 
Meerschaum, 144. 
Melaconite, 132. 
Melanchroite, 131. 
Mendipite, ISO. 
Mendigite, 119. 
Mercury, reaction of, in glass bulb, 50. 

oxide of, 94. 
Miargyrite, 116. 
Microcosmic salt, 39, 72. 
Milderite, 125. 
Minium, 130. 
Mirabilite, 119. 
Mispickel, 113. 
Molybdenum, 58. 
Molybdenite, 129. 

Molybdic acid, reaction in borax bead, 
76, 78, 101. 
reaction in mic. salt 
bead, 80, 82, 101. 
Molybdite. 1S8. 
Monazite, 140. 
Monradite, 144. 
Mosandrite, 148. 
Muscagnite, 111. 
Muscovite, 146. 

Nagyagite, 118. 
Natrolite, 141. 
Natron, 120. 
Naumannite, 115. 
Nemalite, 121. 
Neolite, 144. 
Mckel, 112. 

oxide reaction in borax bead, 

76, 78, 89. 
oxide reaction in mic. salt bead, 

80, 82, 89. 
oxalate of, as reagent, 43. 
Nickel ochre, 113. 
Nice ite, 112. 

Niobic acid, reaction in borax bead, 78, 
reaction in mic. salt bead, 
80, 82, 89. 
Nitre, 120. 
Nitrocalcite, 120. 
Nosite, 142. 

Olivenite, 113. 
Opal, 150. 
Orpiment, 110. 
Orthoclase, 146. 
Orthite, 142. 
Osiridium. 152. 
Osmium, 168. 
Oxidizing flame 17, 18. 

Palladium, 95. 
Panabose, 112. 


I X 1) E :■: 

Parisite, 139. 
Pectolite, US. 
Peganite, 139. 

Pelopic acid, i-eaction iu boras bead, 73. 
78, 99. 
reaction in mic. salt bead, 
10, 82, 99. 
P-ntlandiie, 12G. 
Peri^la-^ te, 140. 
Perofskite, 15-2. 
Phenaciie, 152. 
Phiilipsite, 141. 
Phos,2'enite, 130. 
Piiosplioric acid, reaction in furceps, 62, 

Piedmontite, 135. 
Piermerite, 119. 
Pitiicite, 113. 
Pissopliarcite, 128. 
Plagiouite, 116. 
Platinum, forceps, 27, 61. 
oxide of, 95. 
ppoon. 27. 
wire. 26. 
Piattuerite, 130. 
Polybasite, 112, llo. 
PolVcrase. 152. 
Polybalite, 122. 
Polymignite, 152. 
Potassa, reaction of, in foiTeps, 62, 63, 69. 

autimoniate of, as reagent, 17. 

nitrate of. as reagent, 37. 

oxalate of, as reagent, 36. 
Potassitim, cyanide of, 3-J. 
Preiinite, 148". 
Psatui-ose, 116. 
Pseiido-malacbite, 13^. 
Psilomelane, 134. 
Pyi-argaryrite, 113, 116, 117. 
Pyrites, 128. 
Pyrochlore, 152. 
P'.rocriroite, 135. 
Pyrolusite, 134. 
Pyromorphite, 130. 
Pyrophylite, 150. 
Pyrosclerite, 148. 
Pyrrbotine, 123. 

Quartz, 150. 

Sammebergite, 113. 
Eeagents, general, 'di. 
special, 43. 
Rbodchro^ite, 1-35. 
Rhod um, oxkle of, 95. 
Rhodonite, 135. 
Eiioidolire. 150. 
Rock pair, liO. 
Romeite, 117. 
Rathenium, oxide of, 98. 
Ratine, 152. 

Sal ammoniac, 111. 
Sa-soiite, 137. 
ficheelit-. 1.52 
Sclerve':a.?e, 112. 
Scolecire, 141. 
Scorodile. 113. 

Selenium, 110. 

reacriou3 of, iu glass bulb, 49. 
in open tube, 54. 
" on charcoal, .56. 

'■ in platinum, for- 

ceps, Gi, 61. 
Selenite, 122. 
Selensnlpbur, 100. 
Senermoutite, 111. 
Serpentine. 144. 
Siderite, 124. 
Silica, as reagent, 4?. 

reactions of, in borax bead, 76, 

reactions in mic. salt bead, 80, 
. 82. 
Silver, i-eaction of, on charcoal, 59. 
foil, 44. 
oxide of, reactions of, in borax 

bead. 76, 78, 95. 
oxide of. reactions of, in mic. salt 
bead, 80, 82, 95, 132. 
Smai;iiie, 112. 
Smithsonite, 121. 137. 
Soda, 62, 68. 

carbonate of. 1G3, 110. 
formiate of, 51. 
Soda nitre, 120. 
Sodalite. 14 '. 

Sodium, nitroprusside of, 44. 
Spesspartite, 1:^5. 
Sphene, 149. 
Spinel, 152. 
Sijodumene, 145. 
Stannite, 129. 
Staurolite, 143. 
Stibine. Ill, 117. 
Stiblite, 111, 118. 
Stilbite. 148. 
Stoizite, ISO. 
Stromeyerite, 125. 
Stront-a, 62, 68. 
Strontianite, 121. 
Sulphur, 44, 109. 
Sylvanite, 119. 
Sylvine, 111. 
Symplesiie, 11?. 

Tacbv'itc, 149. 


Tantalic acid, rerTction in borax bead, 

76, 78, 97. 
reac.ion iu mic. salt, 
8J, 82, 97. 
Tant-:2lite, 135 

Telluric acid, reactions in fiame, C5. 67. 
" borax bead, 

7>'\ 78. 
reactions in mic. salt bead, 
80. 82. 
Tclluiiam, I'^O. 118 

reactions of. in Uibe. 5^1. 
'■ en cha coal. 56. 

in forcen-s 62, 68. 
Tellu"0!i^ acil. 1G2, 
■J epiiroire, 13.5. 
Tost nrrpe s^. 4?. 
Tctradvinitc, 113, 1,C5. 

I !>" D E X . 


Tetraheclrite, IIG. 
Theuardite, 120. 
Ttiomsonite, 141. 
Thorite, 144. 
Tliormonatrite, 119. 
Thrombolite, 132. 
Tiemaunite, 111, 113. 
Tin, 41,58. 

OS 1(13 of, reactions in borax bead, 

76, 78, 92. 
oxide of, reactions in mic. salt bead, 

80, 82, 92. 
oxide of, reactions witli nitrate of 
cobalt, 41. 
Titanic acid, reactions of, iu borax bead, 
76, 78, 98. 
reactions of, in mic. salt 
bead, 80, 82, 95. 
Titanite, 149. 
Tobernite, 137. 
Topaz, 149. 
Tourmaline, 146. 
Tremolite, 146. • 
Triphylite, 135. 
Triplite, 135. 
Trcna, 119. 
Tschetikinite, 142. 
Tschermignite, 119. 

Tungstic acid, reactions in borax bead, 
76, 78, 100. 
reactions in mic. salt 
bead, 80, 82, 100. 
Tungstite, 153. 
Turquoise. 139. 
Tyrolite, 114. 

XJlmanite, 117. 
Uraninite, 140. 
Uranium, oxide of, renctions iu borax 

bead, 76, 78, 93, 139. 
oxide of, reactions in mic. 

salt bead, 80, 82, 93. 
Uwarowite, 150. 

Vanadinite, 130. 

Vandaic ac.d, reactions iu borax bead, 

76,78, 101. 
reactions in mic. salt bead, 

80, 82, ICl. 
Vanqueilnite, 131. 
Yiviauite, 138. 
Volborthite, 133. 
Voltaile, 124. 

Wad, 1-35. 

Wagnerite, 188, 
Washing bottle, 31. 
Water, 62. 
Waveliite, 139. 
Wernerite, 142, 149. 
Willemite, l.i>7. 
Witherite, 120. 
Wolframite, 124. 134, 153. 
Wdlastonite, 143. 
Wuifnerite, ISO. 

Xenotine, 152. 

Yttrotantalite, 152. 

Zaratite. 133. 
Zinc, 1;.6 

oxide of. reactions in borax bead, 

76,-78, 90. 136. 
oxide cf, reactions in mic. salt, 80, 

82, 90. 
oxide of, reactions with nitrate cf 

cobalt, 41. 
cxX'le of, reactions on charcoal, 
Zincite, 133. 
Zinkeaite, 115. 
Zircon, 150. 
Zoisite, 148. 
Zorgite. 115. 
Zwieselite, 135. 



D. Yajst Nosteakd, 

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V/eisbacli^s Mechanics. 

New and Mevised EditiGn, 

8yo. Clotli. $10.00. 

and of the Construction of Macliines. By Julius Weisbach, Ph. 
D. Translated from the fourth augmented and improved Ger- 
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L — Theoretical Mechanics. 1,100 pages, and 902 wood-out 

Abstract of Contents. — Introduction to the Calculus — The General 
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Francis' LoT\^eil Hydraulics. 

Third Edit ion, 

4t.o. Clotli. $15.00. 

tion from Experiments on Hydraulic Motors, on thc' Flow of 
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canals, and the interesting scries on the flow through a, submerged Yenturi's 
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Francis on OastJron Pillars. 

8vo. Cloth. $2.00. 

for the use of Engineers, Architects, and Builders. By Ximes B. 
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Merriirs Iron Truss Bridges, 

SecGiid Editio'iu 
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Humberts Strains in Girders, 

18mo. Cloth. $2.50. 

IN GIEDEES and Similar Structures, and their Strength, con- 
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Slireve on Bridges and Roofs. 

8vo, 87 wood-cut illustrations. Cloth. $5.00. 


HOOFS — comprising the determinatioii of Algebraic formulas 
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cy, showing location of Bridge. Ill, 
General Sections of Mississippi River 
at Quincy, showing location of Bridge. 
IV. Plans of Masonry. V. Diagram. 
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hundred and fifty feet span, and de- 
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and Abutments, Y/ater Table, and 

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3, and its Protection. XII. Founda- 
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of Construction. XIV. False Works, 
showing Process of Handling and Set- 
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Raising Iron Work of Superstructure, 
XVI. Steam Dredge used in Founda- 
tions 9 to 18. XVII. Single Bucket 
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Piers. XVIII. Saws used for Cut- 
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Whipple on Bridge Building, 

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BBIDGE BUILDING. An enlarged and improved edition of 
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Stoney on Strains, 

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tures, with. Observations on tlie Application of Theory to Practice, 
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Diedrichs^ Theory of Strains. 

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A Compendium for tlie Calculation and Construction of Bridges, 
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Construction. Bj J. K. WsiLDEiT. 

Campin on Iron RoofSe 

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and Practical Treatise. By Fp.axci3 Ca^ipix. AVitli ^rood-cuts 
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Holley-s Railway Praotice^ 

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.SKELETON STEUCTUEES, especially in their Application to 
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House and Engine — Drainage Grounds — Sewerage Yforks^ Appendix. 

'). VAK J^bSTIlAI^D. 

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Y/orks and Filters — Hamburg- Yf ater Y/orks and Reservoirs — Altona Y'ater 
Works and Filters — Tours Water Works and Filtering- Canal — Angers Water 
Y/'orks and Filtering Galleries — ISTantes Water Works and Filters — Lyons 
Water Y/orks and Filtering Galleries — Toulouse Water Works and Filtering 
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Works and Filters — Appendix. 

Tnnner on Roll-Turning, 

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TUEE OF lEON. By Peter Tijnxee. Translated and adapted. 
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Griiner on Steel. 

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THE MANUFACTUEE OF STEEL. By M. L. Getoteh, trans- 
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1). vajs'' :sfOHTRA:sri). li 

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Link and Yalve Motions, by W. S. 

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Stationary, Portable, Locomotive o.nd Marine Engines, with new 
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Slide Yalve by Eccentrics, by Prof. 
C, W. MacGord. 

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THE STEAM-ENGINE INDICATOE, and the Improved Mano- 
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Bacon's Steain-Engine Indicator. 

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Bartol on Marine Boilers. 

8yo. Cloth. $1.50. 

STATES. ByH. B. Baetol. Illustrated. 


Gillmore^s Limes and Cements. 

Fourth Edition. Mevised and Enlargd. 

8vo. Cloth. $4.00. 

MENTS, AND MOETAES. Papers on Practical Engineering, 
U. S. Engineer Department, No. 9, containing Eeports of 
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years 1858 to 1861, inclusive. By Q. A. Gillmgee, Brig-General 
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Gillmore's Coignet Beton. 

Bvo. Cloth. 83.50. 

Q,. A. GiLLMOEE. 9 Plates, Yiews, etc. 

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of art^cial stone in most general use in Europe and now beginning to bo 
introduced in the United States, discusses their properties, relative merits, 

and cost, and describes the materials of which they are composed 

The subject is one of special and growing interest, and we commend the work, 
embodying as it does the matured opinions of an experienced engineer and 

Williamson^s Practical Tables. 

4to. Elexible Cloth. $2.50. 

METEY, in connection vv^ith the use of the Barometer. By Col. 
K. S, WiLIilAMSOM, U. S. A. 


Williamson on tlie Barometer. 

4to. Cloth. $15.00. 
EECONNAISSANCES. Part I. Meteorology in its Connec- 
tion with. Hypsometry. Part 11. Parometric Hypsomctry. By 
E. S. "WiLLi.vMsox, Pvt. Lieut.-Col. U. S. A., Major Corps of 
Engineers. With Illustrative Tables and Engravings. Paper 
No. 15, Professional Papers, Corps of Engineers. 

" San Francisco, Cal., Feh. 27, 1SG7. 
" G-en. A. A. Humphreys, Cliief of Engineers, U. S. Army : 

" General,, — I have tlie lienor to submit to you, in the following pages, the 
results of my investigations in meteorology and hypsometry, made with the 
view of ascertaining how far the barometer can be used as a reliable instru- 
m.ent for determining altitudes on extended lines of survey and reconnais- 
sances. These investigations have occupied the leisure permitted me from my 
professional duties during the last ten years, and I hope the results will be 
deemed of sufficient value to have a place assigned them among the printed 
professional papers of the United States Corps of Engineers. 
" Yery respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" Bvt. Lt.-Gol. P. S. A., Major Corps of P". S. Engineers." 

Yon Cottars Ore Deposits. 

8vo. Cloth. $4.00. 
Professor of Geology in the Eoyal School of Mines, Preidberg, 
Saxony. Translated from the second German edition^ by 
Prederick Pri:j:e, Jr., Mining Engineer, and revised by the 
author, with numerous illustrations. 
" Prof. Yon Cotta of the Freiberg School of Mines, is the author of the 
best modem treatise on ore deposits, and we are heartily glad that this ad- 
mirable work has been translated and published in this country. The trans- 
later, Mr. Prederick Prime, Jr., a graduate of Preiberg, has had in his work 
the great advantage of a revision by the author himself, who declares in a 
prefatory note that this may be considered as a new edition (the third) of his 
own book. 

" It is a timely and welcome contribution to the literature of mining in 
this country, and we are grateful to the translator for his enterprise and good 
judgment in undertaking its preparation ; while we recognize with equal cor- 
diality the liberality of the author in granting both permission and assist- 
ance." — Extract from Review in Engineering and Mining Journal. 

]). VAi<r I^OSTJIA^TI). 

Plattner's Blov7-Pipe Analysis. 

Second edition. Eevised. 8vo. Cloth. $7.50. 

the last German editioH. Kevised and enlarged. By Prof. Tn. 
BiCHTEP., of the Eoyal Saxon Mining Academy. Translated by 
Prof. H. B. CoENWALL, Assistant in the Columbia School of 
Mines, New York ; assisted by Jon^ H. Caswell. Illustrated 
with eighty-seven wood-cuts and one Lithographic Plate. 560 

" Plattner's celebrated -work has long been recognized as the only complete . 
book on Blo^-Pipe Analysis. The fourth G-erman edition, edited bj Prof . 
Bichter, fully sustains the reputation which the earlier editions acquired dur- 
ing the lifetime o£ the author, and it is a source of great satisfaction to us to 
know that Prof. Eichter has co-operated with the translator in issuing the 
American edition of the work, which is in fact a fifth edition of the original 
work, being far more complete than the last German edition." — SllUman^s 

There is nothing so complete to be found in the English language. Platt- 
ner's book is not a mere pocket edition ; it is i's.tended as a comprehensive guide 
to all that is at present known on the blow-pipe, and as such is really indis- 
I)ensable to teachers and advanced pupils. 

** Mr. Cornwall's edition is something more than a translation, as it contains 
many corrections, emendations and additions not to be found in the original. 
It is a decided improvement on the work in its German dress." — Journal of 
Applied Chemistry, 

Egleston's Mineralogy, 

8vo. Illustrated with 34 Lithographic Plates. Cloth. $4.50. 

at the School of Mines, Columbia College. Br Phofessos T. 

These lectures are what their title indicates, the lectures on Mineralogy 
delivered at the School of Mines of Columbia College. They have beeu 
printed for the students, in order that m.ore time might be given to the vari- 
ous methods of examining and determining minerals. The second part haa 
only been printed. The first part, comprising crystallography and physical 
mineralogy, will be printed at some future time. 


Pynclioii's Chemical Physics, 

New Hdltlon,. Mevised and Enlarged, 


tJse of Academies, Colleg-es, and High. Sckools. Illustrated wiIIl 
numerous engravings, and containing copious experiments "vv'itli 
directions for preparing tliem. By Tno:u:AS Kuggles Ptxchox, 
M.A., Professor of Cliemistry and tho Natural Sciences, Trinity 
College, Hartford. 

Hitherto, no ^ork suitable for (jeneral use, treating of all these subjects 
■mtbin the limits of a single voKime, could be found ; consequently the atten- 
tion they have received has not been at all proportionate to their importance. 
It is believed that a hook containing so much valuable information within so 
small a compass, cannot fail to meet "with a ready sale among all intelligent 
persons, -^vhilo Professional men, Physicians, Medical Students, Photograph- 
ers, Telegraphers, Engineers, and Artisans generally, "vvill find it specially 
valuable, if not nearly indispensable, as a book of reference. 

" We strongly recommend this able treatise to our readers as the first 
■work ever published on the subject free from j)erplexing technicalities. In 
style it is pure, in description graphic, and its typographical appearance is 
artistic. It is altogether a most excellent work." — Edeciic Medical Journal. 

" It treats fully of Photography, Telegraphy, Steam Engines, and tho 
various applications of Electricitj^. In short, it is a carefully prepared 
volume, abreast with the latest scientific discoveries and inventions." — Mart' 
ford Courant. 

Plympton's Blow-Pipe Analysis. 

12mo. Cloth. %\ 50. 

THE BLOW-PIPE : A Guide to Its Use in the Determination 
of Salts and Minerals. Compiled from various sources, by 
George W. Pltmptox, C.E., A.M., Professor of Physical 
Science in the Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, JS"". Y. 

" This manual probably has no superior in the English language as a text- 
book for beginners, or as a guide to the student working without a teacher. 
To the latter many illustrations of the utensils and apparatus required in 
using the blow-pipe, as well as the fully illustrated description of the blow- 
pipe flame, will be especially serviceable."— iV'6z<7 York Teacher. 

D. VAJV J^OSTMAI\^J). ■ 17 

Ure's Diotionary. 

SloctJi Edition, 

London, 1ST2. 

3 vols. 8yo. Cloth, $25.00. Half Russia, $32.50. 

By Andsew Uhe, M.D. Sixth, edition. Edited by Eobeet Hunt, 
F.E.S., greatly enlarged and rewritten. 

Brande and Cox'S Dictionary, 

-Netv Edition, 

London, 1872. 

3 vols. Svo. Clotii, $20.00. Half Morocco, $27.50. 

A Dictionary of Science, Literature, and Art. Edited by W. 
Beande and Eev. Geo. W. Cox. New and enlarged edition. 

Watt's Dictionary of Chemistry. 

Sii2:>plenienta7''if Volume, 
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This volume brings the Record of Chemical Discovery down to the end of 
the year i8'39, including- also several a^dditions to, and corrections of, former 
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"""ji* Complete Sets of the Work, Nev,' and Revised edition, including above 
supplement. 6 vols. Svo. Cloth. $62.00. 

Rammelsberg's Chemical Analysis, 

Svo. Cloth. $2.25. 


NACE PEODUCTS. Illustrated by Examples. By C. F. 
Eammelsbeeg. Translated by J. Towlee, M.D. 

This work has been translated, and is no-w published expressly for those 
students in chemistry v/hoso time and other studies in colleges do not permit 
them to enter upon the m.ore elaborate a,nd expensive treatises of Preseniua 
and others. It is the condensed labor of a master in chemistry and of a prac- 
tical analyst. 


Eliot and Storer's Qualitative 
Chemical Analysis. 

l^eiv Edition, Mevised, 

12mo. Illustrated. Cloth. $1.50. 

CAL ANALYSIS. By Chaeles W. Eliot and EeaxxII. Stoileu. 
Eevised with the Cooperation of the Authors, by WiLLi.vii Ivip- 
LEY Nichols, Professor of Chemistry in the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

" This Manual has great merits as a practical introduction to the science 
and the art of which it treats. It contains enough of the theory and practice 
of qualitatlYe analysis, " in the wet way/' to bring out all the reasoning in- 
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practical methods of arriving at scientific facts." — LutJieran Observer. 

" We wish every academical class in the land could have the benefit of tho 
fifty exercises of two hours each necessary to master this book. Chemistry 
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to the notice of thote teachers v/ho believe in using the sciences as means of 
mental discipline." — College Courani. 

Oraig^s Decimal Systein, 

Square 32mo. Limp. 50c. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASUEES. An Account of the Decimal 
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them ; and to this practical portion, which helps to make the transition as 
easy as possible, is x^refixed a scientific explanation of the errors in the metric 
system, and hov/ they may be corrected in tho laboratory." — Naiian. 


Nugent on Optics. 

12mo. Cloth. $2.00 

TREATISE ON OPTICS ; or, Light and Siglit, theoretically and 
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cations of the science." — Round Table. 

Barnard's Metric System, 

8vo. Brown cloth. §3.00. 

An Address delivered before the Convocation of the University of 
the State of Nev/ York, at Albany, August, 1871. By Fkedehice 
A. P. Baexae-d, President of Columbia College, Nevv^ York City. 
Second edition from the Revised edition printed for the Trustees 
of Columbia College. Tinted paper. 

" It is the best summary of the arguments in favor of the metric weights 
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The Young MechaniCo 

Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth. $1.75. 

THE YOUNG- MECHANIC. Containing directions for the use 
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Harrison's Meclianio's Tool-Book. 

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MECHANIC'S TOOL BOOK, with practical rules and suggestions, 
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ted with 44 engravings. 

" This work is specially adapted to meet the wants of Machinists and work- 
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even to the unpractised eye by a series of well-executed v^^ood engravings." — 
Philadelphia Inquirer. 

Pope^s Modern Practice of tlie Elec- 
tric Telegrapho 

Eighth Edition. 8yo. Cloth $2.00. 

A Hand-book for Electricians and Operators. By Ee.axk L. Pope. 
Seventh edition. Berised and enlarged, and fully illustrated. 

Extract from Letter of Prof. Morse. 

" I have had time only cursorily to examine its contents, but this examina- 
tion has resulted in great gratification, especially at the fairness and unpre- 
judiced tone of your whole work. 

" Your illustrated diagrams are admirable and beautifully executed. 

" I think all your instructions in the use of the telegraph apparatus judi- 
cious and correct, and I most cordially wish you success." 

Extract from Letter c^ Prof. G. W. Hough, of the Dudley Ohsevoatery. 

" There is no other work of this kind in the English language that con- 
tains in so small a compass so much practical information in the application 
of galvanic electricity to telegraphy. It should be in the hands of every one 
interested in telegraphy, or the use of Batteries for other purposes." 

Morsels Telegrapliio Apparatus, 

Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth. $2.00. 

B. MoESE, LL.D., United States Commissioner Paris ETniversal 
Exposition, 1867. 


Sabine^s History of the Telegraph. 

12mo. Cloth. $1.25. 

GRAPH, witli Descriptions of some of tlie Apparatus. By 
BoBEET S-iBi2fE, G. E. Second edition, with, additions. 

Contents. — I. Early Observations of Electrical Phenomena. II. Tele- 
graphs bj Frictional Electricity. III. Telegraphs by Voltaic Electricity. 
IV. Telegraphs by Electro-Magnetism and Magneto-Electricity. V. Tele- 
graphs now in use. VI. Overhead Lines. VTI. Submarine Telegraph Lines. 
VIII. Underground Telegraphs. IX. Atmospheric Electricity. 

Haskins^ G-alvanometer, 

Pocket form. Illustrated. Morocco tucks. §2.00. 

Electricians and Students. By 0. H. Haskixs. 

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entitle it to. To every telegrapher who oWnS; or uses a Galvanometer, or 
ever expects to, it will be quite indispensable." — The Telegrapher, 

Cnlley's Hand-Book of Telegraphy. 

8vo. .Cloth. 15.00. 

R. S. CuLLEY, Engineer to tho Electric and International 
Telegraph Company. Eifth. edition^ revised and enlarged. 

Foster's Submarine Blasting. 

4to. Cloth. $3.50. 

SUBMAEIKE BLASTIMG- in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts- 
Removal of Tower and Corwin Rocks. By John G. EosxEn, 
Lieutenant-Colonel of Engineers, and Brevet Major- General, U. 

S. Army. Illustrated with seven plates. 

List op Plates. — 1. Sketch of the Narrows, Boston Harbor. 2. 
Townsend's Submarine Drilling Machine, and Working- Vessel attending. 
3. Submarine Drilling Machine employed. 4. Details of Drilling Machine 
employed. 5. Cartridges and Tamping used. 6. Fuses and Insulated Y/ireg 
used. 7. Portable Friction Batterv used. 


Barnes^ Submarine "Warfare. 

8vo. Cloth. O'J.OO. 

Comprising a full and complete History of the Invention of the 
Torpedo, its employment in War and results of its use. De- 
scriptions of tlio Tarious forms of Torpedoes, Submarine Batteries 
and Torpedo Boats actually used in War. Methods of Ignition 
by Machinery, Contact Fuzes, and Electricity, and a full account 
of experiments made to determine the Explosive Force of Gun- 
powder under Water. Also a discussion of the Offensive Torpedo 
system, its effect upon Iron-Clad Ship systems, and influence upon 
Future Naval Wars. By Lieut.-Commander John" S. Barnes, 
U. S. N. With twenty lithographic plates and many vrood-cuts. 

" A book important to military men, and especially so to engineers and ar- 
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engines that have been contrived for submarine hostilities, including a discus- 
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probable influence upon future naval wars. Plates of a valuable character 
accompany the treatise, which affords a useful history of the momentous sub- 
ject it discusses. A great deal of useful inform.ation is collected in its pages, 
especially concerning the inventions of ScHOLL and Yeiidu, and of JoNES' 
and Hunt's ])atteries, as well as of other similar machines, and the use in 
submarine operations of gun-cotton and nitro-glycerine." — N. Y. Times, 

Ra^ndairs Quartz Operator's Hand- 


12mo. Cloth. $2.00. 

New edition, revised and enlarged. Fully illustrated. 

The object of tliis work has been to present a clear and comprehensive ex- 
position of mineral veins, and the means and modes chiefly emx)loyed for the 
mining and working of their ores — more especially those containing gold and 


Mitcheirs Manual of Assayingc 


8vo. Cloth. $10.00. 

Third edition. Edited by Willia^i Cbookes, F.E..S. 

In this edition are incorporated all the late important discoveries in Assay- 
ing made in this country and abroad, and special care is devoted to the very 
important Volumetric and Colorimetric Assays, as well as to the Blow-Pipe 

Beliefs Chronoscope. 

Second Edition^ 

Illustrated. 4to. Cloth. $3.00. 

ELECTEO-BALLISTIO MACHn^TES, and tlie Scliultz Chrono- 
scope. By Lieutenant-Colonel S. Y. Bexet, Captain of Ordnance, 
U. S. Army. 

Contents. — 1. Ballistic Pendulum. 2. G-un Pendulum. 3. Use of Elec- 
tricity. 4. NaVez' Jjlachine. 5. Vignotti's Machine, with Plates. G.Benton's 
Electro-Ballistic Pendulum, with Plates. 7. Leur's Tro-Pendulum Iviachine 
8. Schultz's Chrcnoscope, with two Plates. 

Michaelis^ Clironograpli. 

4to. Illustrated. Cloth. $3.00. 

graphed folding plates of illustrations. By Brevet Captain E. 
MiCHAELis, First Lieutenant Ordnance Corps, U. S. Army. 

" The excellent monograph of Captain Michaelis enters minutely into the 
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calculated upon a given fall of the chronometer for ail distances. Captain 
Michaelis has done good service in presenting this work to his brother officers, 
describing, as it does, an instrument which bids fair to be in constant use in 
our future ballistic experiments.'' — xii^my and Navy JourmB. 


Silversmith's Hand-Book, 

FourtJi JEditioii. 

Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth. $3.00. 

and Assayers, comprising the most recent improvements in th(3 
disintegration, amalgamation, smelting, and parting of the 
Precious Ores, with a Comprehensive Digest of the Mining 
Laws. Greatly augmented, revised, and corrected. By Julius 
Silvees:mith. Fourth edition. Profusely illustrated. 1 vol. 
12mo. Cloth. $3.00. 

One of the most important features of this work is that in -which the 
metallurgy of the precious metals is treated of. In it the author has endeav- 
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precious ores heretofore successfully employed in Germany, England, Mexico, 
and the United States, together with such as have been more recently invented, 
a,nd not yet fully tested — all of which are profusely illustrated and easy of 

Simms' Levelling. 

8vo. Cloth. 12.50. 

LEVELLING-, showing its application to purposes of Paihvay 
Engineering and the Construction of Poads, &c. By Fredeeick 
Yf . SiMMs, C. E. From the fifth London edition, revised and 
corrected, with the addition of Mr. Lav/'s Practical Examples for 
Setting Out Pailway Curves. Illustrated vfitli three lithographic 
plates and numerous wood-cuts. 

" One of the most important text-books for the general surveyor, and there 
is scarcely a question connected with levelling for which a solution would be 
sought, but that would be satisfactorily answered by consulting this volume." 
— Ilining Journal. 

" The text-book on levelling in most of our engineering schools and col- 
leges." — Engineers. 

"The publishers have rendered a substantial service to the profession, 
especially to the younger members, by bringing out the present edition of 
Mr. Simms' useful \"or\y'— Engineering. 

D. YAi^^ XOSTF.AjS'D. 25 

Stuart's Successful Engineer. 

ISmo. Boards. 50 cents. 
Hints to Youths intending to adopt the Profession. By 
Berxaed Stuart, Engineer. Sixth Edition. 

"A valuable little Look of sound, sensible advice to yoim^ men yA\o 
wish to rise in the most important of the professions." — Scieniijic American. 

Stuart's Naval Dry Docks. 

TAventy-four engraving-s on steel. 
FourfJi JSditio7i, 

4t<). Cloth. $0.00. 


By Chaeles B. Stuaet. Engineer in Chief of the United States 


List of Illustrations, 

Pumping" Engine and Pumps — Plan of Dry Bock and Pump-'Well— Sec- 
tions of Dry Dock — Engine House — Iron Floating Gate — Details of Floating 
Grat<3 — Iron Turning Gate — Plan of Turning Gate — Culvert Gate — Filling 
Culvert Gates — Engine Bed — Plate, Pumps, and Culvert — Engine House 
Roof — Floating Sectional Dock — Details of Section, and Plan of Turn-Tablea 
— Plan of Basin and Jjlarine Eailways — Plan of Slidhig Frame, and Elevation 
of Pumps — Hydraulic Cylinder — Plan of Gearing for Pumps and End Floats 
— Perspective Tie-w of Dock, Basin, and Railway — Plan of Basin of Ports- 
mouth Dry Dock — Floating Balance Dock — Elevation of Trusses and the Ma- 
chinery — Perspective View of Balance Dry Dock 

Free Hand Drawing. 

Profusely Illustrated. ISmo. Boards. 50 cents. 

A GUIDE TO OENAMENTAL, Eigiire, and Landscape Draw- 
ing. By an Art Studenf. 

Contents. — Materials em.ployed in Drawing, and how to use them — On 
Lines and how to Draw them — On Shading — -Concerning lines and shading, 
with applications of them to simple elementary subjects—Sketches from Na- 


Minifie s Meclianicai Drawing. 

Eighth Edition. 

Royal Svo. Cloth. $-4.00. 

of Mechanics aud Schools, in Avhich the Definitions and Rules of 
Geometry are familiarly explained ; the Practical Problems arc 
arranged, from the most simple to the more complex, and in their 
description technicalities are avoided as much as possible. AVith 
illustrations for Drawing Plans, Sections, and Elevations of 
Building's and Machinery ; an Introduction to Isometrical Draw- 
ing, and an Essay on Linear Perspective and Shadows. Illus- 
trated with over 200 diagrams engraved on steel. By Wii, 
Minifie, Architect. Eighth Edition. With an Aj)pendix on the 
Theory and Application of Colors. 

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t-ext-book of Geometrical Drawing- for the use of Mechanics and Schools. No 
young Mechanic, such as a Machinist, Engineer, Cabmet-Maker, Mill\sTight, 
or Carpenter, should be without it." — Sderdific American. 

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stantial." — Pennsylvania Inquirer. 

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the addition of an introduction to isometrical drawing, linear perspective, and 
the projection of shadows, winding up with a useful index to technical terms." 
— Glasgow Mechanics' Journal. 

C^^" The British G-ovemment has authorized the use of this book in their 
schools of art at Somerset House, London, and throughout the kingdom. 

Minifie's G-eonietrical Drawing. 

I'feiv Edition, Enlarged, 

12mo. Cloth. $2.00. 

GEOMETEICAL DEAWING. Abridged from the octavo edition, 
for the use of Schools. Illustrated with 48 steel plates. New 
edition, enlarged. 

'' It is well adapted as a text-book of drawing to be used in our High Schools 
and Acaderaies where this useful branch of the fine arts has been liitherto too 
much neo:lccted." — Bo&toii Jounud. 

D. VA^^ XOSTllAXD. 27 

Bell on Iron Smelting, 

3vo. Cloth. $6.00. 

perimental and practical examination of the circumstances which 
determine the capacity of the Blast Eurnace, the Temperature 
of the Air, and the Proper Condition of the Materials to bo 
operated upon. By I. Lowthiain' Bell. 

" The reactions yrhich take i)lacG in every foot of the biast-fumace have 
been investigated, and the natta-e of every step in the process, from the intro- 
duction of the raw material into the furnace to the production of the pig iron, 
has been carefully ascertained, and recorded so fully that any one in the trade 
can readily avail themselves of the knowledge acquired ; and we have no hes- 
itation in saying that the judicious application of such knowledge will do 
much to facilitate the introduction of arrangements which will still further 
economize fuel, and at the same time permit of the quality of the resulting 
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tering upon that competition which nowadays is essential to x>rogress, and 
in issuing such a work Mr. Bell has entitled himself to the best thanks of 
every member of the trade." — London Mirdng Journal. 


King's Notes on Steam. 

TJiirteenth Editiofi. 

. 8vo. Cloth. $2.00. 

Engine, Propellers, &c., &c., for Young Engineers, Students, and 
others. By the late W. E. King, U. S. N. Eevised by Chief- 
Engineer J. W. King, U. S. Navy. 

" This is one of the best, because eminently plain and practical treatises on 
the Steam Engine ever published. ' — Philadelplua Press, 

This is the thirteenth edition of a valuable work of the late "W. H. King, 
U. S. N. It contains lessons and practical notes on Steam and the Steam En- 
gine, Propellers, etc. It is calculated to bo of great use to young marine en- 
gineers, students, and others. The text is iU \strated and explained by nu- 
merous diagrams and representations of ra .chinery. — ^<?s^n Daily Adver- 

Text-book at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis. 


Burgli's Modem Marine Engineering. 

Olio thxick 4to vol. Cloth. ;;25.00. Half morocco. $30.00. 

MODEEN 2>IAEIXE ENQINEEEING, applied to Paddle and 
Scre^" Propulsion. Consisting of 3G Colored Plates, 259 Practical 
Wood-cut Illusti-ations, and 403 pages of Descriptive Matter, Him 
whole being an exposition of tlio present practice of the follow- 
ing firms : Messrs. J. Penn & Sons ; Messrs. Maudslay, Sons t": 
Pield ; Messrs. James Yv'att & Co. ; Messrs. J. & G. Ecnnio ; 
Messrs. P. N a.pier & Sons ; Messrs, J. & AY. Dudgeon ; Messrs. 
Pavenliill & Hodgson ; Messrs. Humphreys & Tenant ; Mr. 
J. T. Spencer, and Messrs. Forrester & Co. I3y N. P. Buegh, 

PmxciPAL. Contents. — General Arrangements of Engines, 11 examples 
— General Arrangement of Boilers, 14 examples — General Arrangement of 
Superheaters, 11 examples — Details of Oscillating Paddle Engines, 34 ex- 
amples — Condensers for Screw Engines, both Injection and Surface, 20 ex- 
amples — Details of Screw Engines, 20 examples — Cylinders and Details of 
Screw Engines, 21 examples — Slide Valves and Details, 7 examples — Slide 
Valve, Link IvTotion, 7 examples — Expansion Valves and Gear, 10 exam- 
ples — Details in General, 00 examples— Screw Propeller and Fittings, 13 ex- 
amples - Engine and Boiler Fittings, 23 examples - In relation to the Princi- 
ples of the Marine Engine and Boiler, 83 examples. 

Notices oft/ie Press. 

"Every conceivable detail of the Marine Engine, under all its various 
forms, is profusely, and we must add, admirably illustrated by a multitudo 
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Marine Engineers." — Engineer. 

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7). VAX :rOSTi:AXD. 29 

Bourne^s Treatise on the Steam Eix 


27'i7itli Efdltlon. 
Illustrated. 4to. Cloth. §15.00. 
TEEATISE ON" THE STEAM ENGINE in its various applied, 
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Isiier^;Aroocrs Engineeriiig Precedents. 

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D. TAN XO^TllAXD. 35 

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D, VAN ?70STRAXD. 45 

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4to. 32 Plates. Cloth. In press. 

Discussion of the Principal Systems of Rifling and Projec- 
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embraced in a Report to the Chief of Ordnance, U.S.A. By 
Capt. Jonx S. Butler^ Ordnance Corps, L^.S.A. 


Van Nostrand's Science Series. 

It is tlie intention of the Pnblisber of this Series to issue them at inter- 
vals of about a month. They -will be put up in a uniform, neat and attrac- 
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Price, 50 Cents Each. 

STEAM BOILEES. By E. Armsteoxg, C. E. 



By xVethur Jacob, A. B. With Illustrations. 


ChAeles E. Bexder, C. E. With Illnstrations. 



AGE EESEEVOIES. By Arthur Jacob. With Illustra- 

IXG WALLS. By James S. Tate, C. E. 



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FUEL. By C. W. Siemens to which is appended the Value of 
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COMPOUND ENGINES. Translated from the Erencli of 
A. Mallet. Illustrated. 

THEORY OF AECHES. By Prof. \\\ Allax, of the 
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12. ' 

William Cains', C.E. Illustrated. 

AVITH IN COAL-MINES. By the late J. J. Atkixsox, 
Government Inspector of Mines for the County of Durham, 
E norland. 


Author of ^* A Practical Treatise on the Gases met with in 
Coal- Mines." 

SKEW ARCHES. By Prof. E. W. Hyde, C.E. Illustrated 
with numerous engravings and three folded plates. 

48 D. VA^^ ^^OST^.Al^'D. 

account of the diifereut Processes now being introduced for 
working the Gold Ores of tliat Territory. By J. P. Whitney. 
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COLORADO: SCHEDULE OF ORES contributed by sundry 
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information about the Region and its Resources. By J. P. 
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Paper. 35 cents. 

R. C. McCoiixicK, Secretary of the Territory. With Map. Svo. 
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MONT.Hn'A as IT IS. Being a general description of its Re- 
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BAILWAY GAUGES. A Review of the Theory of Narrow 
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REPORT made to the President and Executive Board of the 
Texas Pacific Railroad. By Gen. G. P. Buell, Chief Engineer. 
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